The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by this website.

Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies.

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What People Say About Us

MG Beta Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating macrophages, and via the macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.

Activation of Immune Defense Against Infectious DiseaseHunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001.

Particle size is likely the primary factor that governs endocytic uptake of particles. The optimum size of particles for efficient endocytic uptake varies according to the cell type. Macrophage cells are able to ingest large particles having a diameter between 1 micron and 10 microns to eliminate invaders from outside the body. The optimal sizes of the particles for the uptake by alveolar macrophages [primarily in the lungs] range between 3 microns and 6 microns, but those by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reportedly from 0.3 microns to 1.1 microns.

The term micronized in reference to beta 1,3/1,6 glucan particles refers to insoluble particles 5 microns or less in size, with uniformity in micronized particles in size in a dose an important variable.

Immune Cell Receptor - Micronization / Particle Size / EndocytosisKeiji H, Hiroshi T, "Endocytosis of Particle Formulations by Macrophages and Its Application to Clinical Treatment," Chapter 16

The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. ...Interaction with the smaller particles (micronized 0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. ...Therefore, larger microparticles (micronized 3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Smaller Particle sizes were 0.5 to 1 micron. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns) However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

MicronizedPacheco P, White D, Sulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260