The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by this website.

Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies.

Introduction to Beta Glucan Research



Climate Change – Mitigation   Chavanke SN, Penna Suprasanna, Dalvi SG, “B-Glucan and its nanocomposites in sustainable agriculture and environment: an overview of mechanisms and applications,” Environ Sci Polut Res Int, PMID: 35641741, , May 31, 2022. Quote: “B-Glucan is an eco-friendly, biodegradable, and economical biopolymer with important roles for acquiring adaptations to mitigate climate change in crop plants. B-Glucan plays a crucial role in the activation of functional plant innate immune system by triggering the downward signaling cascade/s, resulting in the accumulation of different pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defense enzymes, CA”-influx as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK) pathway.

The B-glucan and chitosan nanocomposites have proven to be useful for the activation of plant defense pathways and to enhance plant response/systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against broad types of plant pathogens and mitigating multiple stresses under the changing climate conditions.”

Trained Immunity – Dectin-1 & B-glucans:  Mata-Martinez, Bergon-Gutierrez, Fresno CD, “Dectin-1 Signaling Update: New Perspectives for Trained Immunity,” Front Immunl;13:812148, , PMID: 35237264, Feb 14, 2022. Quote: “Dectin-1 has recently gained a renewed attention due to its role in the induction of trained immunity. This process of long-term memory of innate immune cells can be triggered by B-glucans, and Dectin-1 is crucial for its initiation.”

Trained Immunity – B 1,3/1,6d glucans:      Vetvicka V, Sima P, Vannucci L, “Trained Immunity as an Adaptive Branch of Innate Immunity,” Int J of Mol Sciences, 22(19), PMID: 34639025, , Oct 01 2021, “As more studies have confirmed the existence of trained immunity, …trained immunity effects induced by …products such as …B-glucans…are accompanied by a more effective cytokine response, which could lead to improved antiviral protection, even from the coronavirus disease, COVID-19. …B-Glucan-induced trained immunity has been suggested as an effective way to boost immune response against COVID-19 infection and even to abrogate symptoms. “

Beta glucan is a scientifically proven biological response modifier (BRM) that naturally and nutritionally activates, potentiates, modulates and helps normalize the immune response. As a supplement, after swallowing orally, Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is ingested and internalized primarily through macrophage, neutrophils and dendritic immune cells, by Dectin-1 receptors and CR3 cytokine receptors. Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nutritionally, according to research, helps activate immune cell pathogenic defenses. Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the pattern recognition receptors [PRRs] of Beta glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function to enhance systemic immune function.

For many years Glucans have been investigated (History) for these immune response modifying properties, particularly their ability to activate macrophage immune cells and NK-Cells, plus in turn, the T-Cells, and B-Cells including selected cytokines and complement.

Poly-branched Beta-1,3-(D)-Glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides, with or without Beta-1,6-(D)-glucose side chains. These Beta Glucans are integral cell wall constituents in a variety of bacteria, plants and fungi. Glucan receptors to deliver non-self derived glucan to the immune response cells have been identified on macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells. The Beta-1,3-(D)-glucan with Beta- 1,6-glucan linkage extracted from yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been shown to act as a potent non-specific immune-activator and immune response modifier.

The scientific literature on glucans is voluminous over many decades, and there is also a considerable body of patent literature. This Index is not intended to be a complete compilation of all beta glucan research, but rather is keyed by health topic targeted to research on yeast-cell-wall-derived Beta- 1/3,1/6-glucan isolate.  Human studies and Clinical trials are indexed in Bold Print.

This indexing format varies from standard research classified by “researcher(s)” to make finding applicable research to a specific health topic easier for both the scientific and nonscientific user. As a note, particulate insoluble beta glucan is the glucan form in nutritional dietary supplements, while soluble glucans are primarily utilized in intravenous applications. Particulates are not generally considered usable as injectables due to being particles and particle size.

The Key Determinants in Beta Glucan Effectiveness

Neither the volume nor weight of beta glucan independently determines effectiveness or optimum dosage, but rather the key determinant is the degree of activation of the immune response by any given glucan in a specific amount, determined by an acceptable scientific method. In other words judge by the extent to which the amount of beta glucan in a product enhances the immune response and immune cell activation and not solely by the quantity of any given beta glucan in a capsule.

To emphasize determinants of immune response activation and effectiveness are beta glucan source, processing (including avoidance of reaggregation or agglomeration during digestion), sizing and uniformity of beta glucan particles ingested and bioavailability.

Several prior beta glucan studies used larger volumes of beta glucan than found in current effective oral beta glucan nutritional supplements, but these were not experiments designed to determine optimum dosage relative to the immune potentiation capabilities of a specific glucan and most were performed in the 1970’s and 1980’s.

Current science has demonstrated 3 to 500 mg of a properly processed and high quality Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan or Beta-1,3-(D)-glucan with Beta- 1,6-glucan linkage extracted and isolated from yeast cell wall is an effective biological response modifier (brm) dosage amount (see “Dosage”).

Lower quality, or glucans that reaggregate in the digestive process to non-uniform globular size, usually are sold in high milligram amounts that, without adequate immunopotentiation capability proven by independent laboratory testing, can be less effective.  While generally inexpensive, these high milligram content capsules can be inexpensive due to limited processing to minimize detriments to beta glucan immunopotentiation and minimal if any efforts to reduce particle size to uniform micro-nano particulate sizes of 1-4 microns (micrometers) equal to 1,000-4,000 nanometers (See “micronization”.)  As a note, macrophage immune cells are generally 8-21 microns (micrometers) in diameter.

Current research has indicated particulate beta glucan from yeast cell wall even when micronized to 1-4 microns, or 1,000-4,000 nanometers prior to oral ingestion, reaggregates or clumps back together when subjected to water in the digestive process, yielding an aggregated/agglomerated group that collectively creates a  larger size glucan effective particle size for attempted  internalization by the immune cells.  [See “beta glucan phagocytosis” and “microparticulate” categories for research].

The immune response with non-reaggregated glucan particles ingested by macrophage or dendritic cells is modified to respond faster and in greater numbers to attack non-self in the form of pathogens and preferably in microparticulate form (see “Particle Size” research). In immunotherapy research, MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is recognized as a cell-based activation and modification agent and works by amplifying the immune response of Immune effector cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and cytotoxic T-cells. Immune effector cells work together to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells and to recognize, respond, kill and remove other pathogens .

Valid Test for Effectiveness and Digestion Impact on Glucan Potentiation

A common test to determine a glucan’s immune response potentiation effectiveness is the measure of the degree to which a glucan increases the nitric oxide burst, a pathogen killing agent, in the macrophage immune cell. Particle size and uniformity of same have additionally been scientifically shown to be important factors in nutritional potentiation and modification of the immune response with microparticulates of 1-4 microns optimum, and for this reason “particle size” has been included as a research category in this beta glucan research data base.

Be sure in evaluating comparisons of glucans to confirm the compared glucans are all in the form delivered to the immune cells (usually macrophages) after being subjected to the digestive process, including subject to acid, enzymes and water.  Most glucans, even if processed to reduce particle size, reaggregate or clump like grape clusters after being subjected to water in the digestive process and again become globular in characteristics, which can minimize ingestion and internalization by immune cells and immune response potentiation/normalization. (The Presentation Cover photo shows internalized MG Glucan as orange inside macrophage cells after ingestion)

Being a small particle glucan when swallowed is a positive step, but the critical determinant is being an extremely small microparticulate of 1-4 microns particle after going through the digestive process and then being delivered to the Peyer’s patch in the lymphatic system to effectively modify and activate a beta glucan receptor (Dectin 1. CR3 or TLR) on a macrophage or dendritic cell to potentiate and enhance the immune response cells.

Certificates of Analysis, Labeling

A certificate of analysis for a specific beta glucan or beta glucan product should be available on request from a recognized independent GMP laboratory and not the manufacturer or distributor (conflict of interest), with clear delineation of specific tests and/or specifications for each category accepted and approved according to industry standards.

Is the product a private branded product provided the reseller by another manufacturer, or is the product from the original manufacturer? Has the entity selling the product been actively involved in any medical school research related to the product in the bottle? “No” to the first question and “yes” to the second indicate a preferable beta glucan product from a primary source involved in scientific studies to study and improve glucans. Acquiring intellectual property can be beneficial, but actively developing science in on-going programs to produce intellectual property and glucan information with new understanding is preferable in product manufacturer activities.

Be on alert if tests, graphs and results do not include immune potentiation capabilities, particle size and ability to negate reaggregation in the digestive process, but rather disclose or compare only glucan volume in milligrams in the product and capsule ingredients. The latter variables are not reliably indicative of immune cell activation capabilities or positive modifications.  Product dollar cost per milligram of glucan also has nothing to do with immune cell potentiation and/or modification capabilities of a specific glucan product and may represent only an inexpensive, poorly manufactured or processed glucan, compared to a justifiably more expensive premium beta glucan products processed to higher standards, especially in testing and compliance programs. While everyone seeks a bargain, health is not an area to seek a minimal price at the cost of quality and effectiveness.

Be sure labeling is also in compliance with FTC and other government regulations, which are specific in format and content. Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan or Beta-1,3(D) glucan in the February 15, 2019 FDA update is classified as GRAS or generally recognized as safe.

G R A S:   FDA Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21-Chapter 1-Subchapter B-Part 184-Subpart B-184.1983 – FDA GRAS.  Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Beta-1,3(D)-Glucan. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  Go to for more details. Feb 15, 2019. “FDA Classification – Classified as ‘Yeast extract (Bakers)” by the FDA; more specifically Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan or Beta-1,3(D)-glucan, which is derived from the yeast cell wall of bakers yeast scientifically designated as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. …The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) classifies “Yeast extract (Bakers)” as “Generally Recognized as Safe or GRAS. The GRAS classification is also set forth in the FDA “APPENDIX A FOOD ADDITIVES”

Validate Health Claims, Product Compositions and Credentials of Researchers and Spokespersons - Know the Quality of the Product and those Producing and Marketing a Beta Glucan Product

Be aware and suspicious of broad health claims in supplements unsubstantiated by science and cautiously evaluate scientific research on glucan compositions that differ substantially from the product being sold (examples: insoluble-particulate glucans research to support soluble glucan, or yeast beta glucan (Beta-1,3-(D) or Beta-1,3/1,6) studies to support  oat and barley derived glucan (beta 1,4) immune potentiation capabilities and vice versa). Obviously, avoid resellers who are not aware there are differences in glucans or those who do which only seek to sensationalize by inappropriate marketing.  Go to to see current warning letters and additional information on beta glucan vendors.

Do not be shy when your health or the health of your patients or customers is involved and demand complete information on the product and the parties involved to make informed decisions.  Be informed to determine appropriate applications, premium beta glucan products and how to differentiate the effective from the promoted.

Remember individual products containing Beta glucan can (1) range widely in forms of Beta glucan chemically and structurally; (2) range widely in processing procedures from unique U.S. Patents to none when private labeling; (3) range widely in quality of the processed Beta glucan due to source, processing and microbial testing during preparation and (4) be subject to various levels of honesty in immune normalization and potentiation capabilities of an individual product, including outright and purposeful misrepresentations in marketing utilizing performance criteria such as weight and volume in a capsule, known to have no meaningful relationship to an ingredients ability to normalize, potentiate or modulate the immune response nutritionally.

Beta Glucan, particularly Beta- 1,3/1,6 Glucan extracted from yeast cell wall, can be a potent immune response normalizer, potentiator and modulator when processed and distributed in a reputable and scientifically researched composition in an effective dosage.  Beta- 1,3/1,6 Glucan extracted from yeast cell wall also has excellent potential to be a major contributor to the now prevalent immunotherapy research focusing on many health situations. The research recorded on this non-commercial website, with constant additions and updates on publication,  is a first step in understanding this complex and nutritionally beneficial natural substance – Beta glucan.

Research Overview

MG Beta Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating macrophages, and via the macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.

Activation of Immune Defense Against Infectious DiseaseHunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001.

Particle size is likely the primary factor that governs endocytic uptake of particles. The optimum size of particles for efficient endocytic uptake varies according to the cell type. Macrophage cells are able to ingest large particles having a diameter between 1 micron and 10 microns to eliminate invaders from outside the body. The optimal sizes of the particles for the uptake by alveolar macrophages [primarily in the lungs] range between 3 microns and 6 microns, but those by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reportedly from 0.3 microns to 1.1 microns.

The term micronized in reference to beta 1,3/1,6 glucan particles refers to insoluble particles 5 microns or less in size, with uniformity in micronized particles in size in a dose an important variable.

Immune Cell Receptor - Micronization / Particle Size / EndocytosisKeiji H, Hiroshi T, "Endocytosis of Particle Formulations by Macrophages and Its Application to Clinical Treatment," Chapter 16

The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. ...Interaction with the smaller particles (micronized 0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. ...Therefore, larger microparticles (micronized 3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Smaller Particle sizes were 0.5 to 1 micron. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns) However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

MicronizedPacheco P, White D, Sulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260

The important benefit of B-glucan is to improve the immune system and to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood. ...Several studies have reported the benefits of B-glucan as: antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-aging, immune system activators, protection against radiation, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic anti-cholesterol etc. ...Beta-glucan extract of S. cerevisiae can reduce total cholesterol approaching normal values at doses of 10 mg of 32.79% (blood plasma) and 33.71% (in the liver). The extract was capable of reducing triglyceride levels in a dose of 10 mg of beta-glucan 64.43% (blood plasma)...

CholesterolKusmiati, Dhewantara FX, "Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Beta Glucan Extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Rats," Sci Pharm, 14;84(1):153-65. PMID: 271105D6 PMCID: PMC4839553, Feb 2016:

The results of all studies [in vivo, in vitro, human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans] taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect. ...Insoluble B-glucans are able to activate both the innate and adaptive immune responses...Two independent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that daily oral administration of the proprietary insoluble (1,3)-1,6)-B-glucan, derived from brewers' yeast, reduced the incidence of common cold episodes during the cold season [25%] in otherwise healthy subjects.

Immune (Immunological) modulatory effectsStier H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, "Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan," Nutr J, 13:38,PMID: 24774968 PMC40112169, Apr 28, 2014.

…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens. Administration of glucan particles …stimulates…proliferation of macrophages and increases in phagocytic and secretory activities of macrophages. …A cascade of interactions and reactions initiated by macrophage regulatory factors can be envisioned to occur and to eventuate in conversion of the glucan-treated host to an arsenal of defense.

An Arsenal of Immune DefenseCzop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”. Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986.

The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial marketing entity and has no products nor makes any endorsements of any kind. References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: No commercial brand names of products are presented or endorsed on this research website. Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker’s yeast-derived beta glucan isolate with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is primarily uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not significantly reaggregate after the digestive process. “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is abbreviated as BCG.  AFO-202 beta glucan is a Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan produced by the AFO-202 strain of a black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans (U.S. Patent 6956120, Ikewaki N, et al; Japan Patent 2004-329077).

“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms. Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley while not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations. Letters such as NSC, WGP and others are associated with brand names and are not specific forms of Beta glucan, although the individual products often contain Beta glucan.

The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in various research presented is from multiple sources in various amounts; none determined nor controlled by this website. Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. PubMed IDs (PMID) and/or digital object identifiers (DOI) are presented for most research to be able to find additional information on the internet. Human studies and Clinical trials are indexed in Bold Print. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims or endorsements are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement or warranties of any of the research by various entities herein.

As a note, Web MD in “WebMD’ beta glucan references” include primarily only much older beta glucan research studies over 2 years old involving beta 1,3/1,6 glucan research. In contrast, this Beta Glucan Organization data base includes extensive 2020, 2021 and 2022 beta 1,3/1,6 glucan research. On Web MD the great majority of listed beta glucan research involves barley and oats as beta 1,4 glucan research and thus are not included in this beta 1,3/1,6 glucan’ research data base. All Web MD research listings involving beta 1,3/1,6 glucan research studies as of 02/10/22 are also included in this Beta Glucan Organization data base.

Thus this research listing site includes many more research studies and more current research of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan from yeast cell wall than the WMD site. “WMD” designated in a research study listing herein indicates a research source acknowledged by Web MD and listed on the WebMD website on 02/22/22, but note additional PMID and DOI  info where available on the same Beta Glucan Organization listing. WMD research listings on beta glucan also include no research study quotes, while most do in this Beta Glucan Organization research data base to provide better understanding of the research and results.

Information and statements regarding beta glucan, dietary supplements and/or other research substances in this non-commercial site have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended by compilers of the third-party research presented here-in to diagnose, treat, cure, mitigate, or prevent any disease.  As previously stated, no commercial products sold wholesale or retail are endorsed or offered and none can be acquired through this website.