Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall – Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives
Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References
“E” through “H”
Elderly: See “Aging”
Endocytosis / Particle Size / Micronization: Keiji H, Hiroshi T, “Endocytosis of Particle Formulations by Macrophages and Its Application to Clinical Treatment,” Chapter 16; http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/37733/InTech-Endocytosis of particle Formulations by Macrophages and its-application to clinical treatment.pdf, 0706 2012, Quote: ” Particle size is likely the primary factor that governs endocytic uptake of particles. The optimum size of particles for efficient endocytic uptake varies according to the cell type. Macrophage cells are able to ingest large particles having a diameter between 1 micron and 10 microns to eliminate invaders from outside the body. The optimal sizes of the particles for the uptake by alveolar macrophages [primarily in the lungs] range between 3 microns and 6 microns, but those by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reportedly from 0.3 microns to 1.1 microns.” Note: Endocytosis is the process of actively transporting molecules into the cell by engulfing such molecules with the cell membrane.
Environmental Toxins: Tuckman NB, Ozek DA, et al, “Beta-glucan effects on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in liver and brain,” Biotech Histochem, 1-8, PMID: 35073792, https://doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2022.2025902 , Jan 25, 2022. Quote: “2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental contaminant that is toxic to brain, heart, kidney and liver. TCDD toxicity is due to free radical formation. …The oxidative stress and histopathology caused by TCDD were ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment. Beta-glucan should be explored for preventing brain and liver damage caused by TCDD toxicity.”
Environmental Toxins – Vetvicka V, “Effects of B-glucan on some environmental toxins: An overview.” Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; ;158(1):1-4. PMD: 24399292. 2014. Quote: “…glucan reduces the immunosuppressive effects of a number of agents including chemo therapy and radiation. … An overview of the effects of glucan on the mycotoxin, aflotoxin and other environmental toxins (mercury-thimerosal, depleted uranium). Glucan is effective as a natural immunomodulator and could be used as an inexpensive solution to reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins.”
Environmental Toxins, Pereyra CM, Cavaglieri LR, et al, “The corn influence on the adsorption levels of aflatoxin B, and zearalenone by yeast cell wall [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan].” J Appl Microbiol, 114:655-62, PMID 23176728, https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12082. Mar 2013. Quote: “One of the most efficient prevention strategies to prevent mycotoxicoses is the dietary supplementation with materials that reduce the toxin bioavailability in the digestive tract and, therefore, their adverse effects on animals. Basic ingredients and dietary supplements such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may have functional properties in the diet and show satisfactory results when added to feedstuff either as active cells or as cell wall components (Shetty and Jespersen 2006). α-d-mannan and β-d-glucan are the two major polysaccharides present in S. cerevisiae. They constitute up to 90% of the cell wall dry weight and have remarkable properties to interact with the host immune system and constitute a good source of adsorbent.”
Environmental Toxins: Prado G, Madeira JEGC, Morais VAD, et al, “Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan],” 74(6):1003-6, PMID: 21669081, https://www.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028XJFP-10-380 , Jun 7 2011. Quote: Aflatoxin B(1) is a toxigenic and carcinogenic compound produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. …Aflatoxin B(1) contamination in peanuts was reduced after the addition of S. cerevisiae. The concentration of aflatoxin B(1) decreased by 74.4 and 55.9% after 7 and 15 days, respectively. …The use of S. cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] is a promising strategy for biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.”
Environmental Toxins: Shetty PH, Hald B, Jespersen L, “Surface binding of aflatoxin B1 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with potential decontaminating abilities in indigenous fermented foods,” Int J Food Microbiol: 113(1):41-6, PMID: 16996157, https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrooemid4o.2006.07.013 , Jan 1 2007. Quote: “The results obtained show that some strains of S. cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan], viable or non-viable, are effective aflatoxin binders and these properties should be considered in the selection of starter cultures for relevant indigenous fermented foods where high aflatoxin level is a potential health risk.”
Escherichia coli: See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial
Escherichia coli-Sepsis-Trauma: , McBride MA, Owen AM, Stothers CL, et al; “The Metabolic Basis of Immune Dysfunction Following Sepsis and Trauma,” Front Immunol;11:1043. PMID: 3254753, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01043, May 29 2020. Quote: “Serious infection …frequently precipitates sepsis, a complex disease spectrum that includes systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction. As such, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICU). … Stimulation of innate immune cells … such as [macrophages, neutrophils et al] …[by] B-glucan reprograms their metabolism, which supports …antimicrobial capacity to combat invading infections. … Glucans are potent immunomodulators that augment host resistance against gram negative [Escherichia coli], gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), fungal [Candida albicans] and parasitic infections. Further, glucan has been shown to decrease infectious complications in high risk surgical patients.”
Escherichia coli: Han AB, Baruah K, Cox E, et al, “Structure-Functional Activity Relationship of B-Glucans from the Perspective of Immunomodulation: A Mini-Review,” Front. Immunol., https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00658, April 22 2020. Quote: “B-Glucan is a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that is detected upon fungal infection to trigger the host’s immune responses in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Recognition of B-glucan by Dectin-1 [a beta glucan receptor] on macrophages activates the downstream signaling pathway. As a consequence of these signaling pathway, Dectin-1 triggers phagocytosis, ROS generation, microbial killing, and cytokine production. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that pre-administration of B-glucans resulted in innate immune memory, protecting the mice against re-infection with a lethal Escherichia coli.” Note: ROS refers to reactive oxygen species or chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Phagocytosis is the engulfing and usually destruction of particulate matter; thus serving as an important bodily defense mechanism against infection by microorganisms.
Escherichia coli – Trained Immunity: Rusek P, Wala M, et al, “Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity,” Int J Mol Sci, 19(2):456, doi: 10.3390/ijms19020456, PMID 29401667, Feb 3 2018. Quote: “… For example, during training of human monocytes with B-glucan (a component of fungal cell wall) from Candida albicans (a human opportunistic pathogen), the immunity is induced not only against fungi, but also against bacteria, viruses and even parasites. Furthermore, it was observed that training of human monocytes induced by chitin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae …leads to enhanced capacity to eliminate microbes like Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), or Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) compared to non-trained human monocytes.”
Escherichia coli: Akramlene D, Konddrotas A, et al, “Effects of B-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas), 43(8), Kaunas U of Med, Lithuania, Aug 6 2007. Quote: “It has been common knowledge in the scientific community that B-glucan is the most known powerful immune stimulant and a very powerful antagonist to both benign and malignant tumors; it lowers cholesterol and triglyceride level, normalizes blood sugar level, heals and rejuvenates the skin and has various other benefits. …B-Glucan itself can elicit broad anti-infective effects. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Listeria monocytogenes, Leishmania donovani, Influenza virus are microorganisms, against which a protective effect of B-glucan has been established.”
Esherichia coli: Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”
Escherichia coli: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992. Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.“
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Konopski Z, Oian P, Seljelid R; “Killing of Escherichia coli by mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils stimulated in vitro with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives,” Microbiol Immunol 36(11):1173-1188. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1992.*
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Dynamics of blood components and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives. I. Cells.,” Scand J Immunol 32(4): 321-331. Oct 1990.*
Escherichia coli: Williams D.L., et al; “Effect of glucan on neutrophil dynamics and immune function in Escherichia coli peritonitis.” J. Surg. Res. 44:54-61, 1988.
Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM, Seljelid R; “Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions,” Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 1987.*
Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM, Bogwald J., Hoffman J., Sjunneskog C.; “The effect of splenectomy on Escherichia coli sepsis and its treatment with semisoluble animated glucan,”, Scand J. Gastroenterol, 22:261-267, 1987.
Escherichia coli: Seljelid R., et al., ”The protective effect of beta 1-3D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads against Escherichia coli infection in mice,” Scand J. Immuno 25(1):55-60. Jan 1987.* Quote:“Pretreatment with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads conferred strong protection against Escherichia coli infection in mice.”
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Fandrem. Jr., and Seljelid R., “Dynamics of Blood Components and Peritoneal Fluid During Treatment of Murine E. Coli Sepsis with . beta.-1,3-D-polyglucose Derivatives”; Scand. J 63:73-80 Immunol. 1985.
Escherichia coli: Williams D.L, Browder IW and DiLuzio N.R, ”Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli—induced experimental peritonitis and bacteremia by glucan,” Surgery 93(3):448-454. Mar 1983.* Quote: “These data denote that the intraperitoneal administration of glucan significantly modifies the course of E. coli-induced peritonitis and bacteremia due, in part, to glucan-induced enhancement of macrophage function.”
Exercise Stress: Kohut ML, Davis JM, et al: “Effect of exercise on macrophage antiviral function in the lung.” J. of Am. Cell. Of Sports Medicine; Vol. 26. S33. 1994.
Eyes-Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye): Lee HS, Kwon JY, Joo CK. “Topical Administration of B-1,3-Glucan to Modulate Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci,, 57(3), 1352-60; PMID 27002295; Mar 2016.” Quote: “BG is capable of stimulating IL-10-producing CD4 [Helper T cells]+ T cells and suppressing both the Th2 response in draining LNs and conjunctival eosinophil infiltration. We therefore demonstrated the therapeutic potential of topical BG administration for allergic conjunctivitis. Note: LN refers to Lymph Nodes and BG to Beta Glucan.”
Fibromyalgia – (Similar but different from Chronic Fatique) See Auto-Immune Disorders
Fire Fighters-Human Study: Respiratory: Harger-Domitrovich SG et al, “Effects of an Immunomodulating Supplement on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Wildland Fighters,” Med * Sci in Sports & Exer, 40:S353, 2008. Quote: “A beta glucan antioxidant supplement [whole particle glucan] may help to suppress symptoms of URTI [upper respiratory tract infection] and increase perception of overall health in WLFF [Wildland Fire Fighters] during 14 days of arduous wildfire management.”
Flatulence-Human Study: Spagnuoto R, Cosco C et al, “Beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes improve quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, Supply:102-107, PMID: 28724171, June 21, 2017. Quote: “We have shown that supplementation with a mixture of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes reduces bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain, improving the overall clinical condition of IBD-IBS patients.”
Flu/Colds: See also “Influenza” and “Colds”
Flu/Colds – Respiratory Tract Infection: Shokri-Mashhadi N, Kazemi M, et al, “Effects of select dietary supplements on the prevention and treatment of viral respiratory tract infections [RTI]: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, 15:6, 805-82, https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2021.1918546 , April 26, 2021. Quote: “Yeast beta-glucan supplementation may be associated with decreased RTIs [respiratory tract infections] symptoms such as the number of days with the common cold or flu symptoms.”
Flu/Colds – Beta Glucan: Vlassopoulou M, Yannakooulia M, et al, “Effects of fungal beta-glucans on health – s systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Food Funct,PMID: 33876798, https://doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00122a, Mar 31, 2021. Quote: “Thirty-four RCTs … are included in the present review. The primary physiological outcome of the majority of the interventions was immunomodulation, which resulted in (a) strengthened immune defense that reduces the incidence and symptoms of cold, flu and other respiratory infections and (b) improvement of allergic symptoms. …the cohorts that received the polysaccharides of interest reported improvement in their mood states as well as amelioration of overall wellbeing. …it might also be useful as a complementary agent to patients undergoing cancer therapies. Furthermore, supplements containing beta-1,3/1,6-d-glucan administered to overweight/obese adults might have the potential to decrease comorbid [additional] conditions associated with obesity. Notably, no adverse event causally related to glucans was recorded.”
Flu/Colds-Human Trial: McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, “Baker’s yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA [immunoglobulin] and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise,” J Diet Suppl 10(3):171-83, Sept 2013. PMID: 23927572. Quote: “BG [beta glucan] was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA [immunoglobulin A].” Note: Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes.
Flu/Respiratory Tract Infections-Children-Beta Glucan Human Study: Jesenak M, Maitan J, et al, “Immunomodulatory effect of pleuran (B-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections,” Int Immunopharmacol, 15(2):395-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.11.020 , PMID: 23261366, Feb 2013. Quote: “In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, multicentre study, we have observed a group of 175 children with more than 5 respiratory infections that occurred during the 12 months prior to the beginning of the study. … In the active group [pleuran B-glucan+Vit C], 36% of the children did not suffer from any respiratory infections throughout the treatment, compared to 21% in the placebo [Vit C only] group. …[pleuran B-glucan + Vit C] also significantly decreased the frequency of flu and flu-like disease and the number of lower respiratory tract infections. …[pleuran B-glucan + Vit C] treatment resulted in a statistically significant modulation of humoral and cellular immunity. Results from this study demonstrate that [pleuran-B-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus] is effective in the prevention of RRTIs [recurrent respiratory tract infections] in children. [The commercial product name is omitted with the research-provided ingredient name inserted’]
Flu/Colds Jung K, et al, “Antiviral effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan to swine influenza virus by increased production of interferon-gamma and nitric oxide,” J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 51(2):72-6, Mar 2004. Quote: “Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan reduced the pulmonary lesion score and viral replication rate in SIV [swine influenza virus] -infected pigs. These findings support the potential application of beta-glucan as prophylactic/treatment agent in influenza virus infection.”
Flu Vaccine Adjuvant: Wang M, Yang R, et al, “Improvement of immune response to influenza vaccine (H5N1) by sulfated yeast beta glucan,” Int J Biol Macromol, 93(Pt A) 203-207. PubMed 27339320. June 23, 2016. Quote: “The adjuvant activity of … glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (GSC) was researched…with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. The research showed that GSC could significantly enhance lymphocyte [white blood cell] proliferation, effectively increase the percentage of CD4*T Cells, decrease the percentage of CD8*T Cells and elevate the CD4/CD8 ratio, enhance the Hl antibody titre, and promote the production of IL-2, INF-y, IL4 and IL-6 at medium level. …GSC could be used as an effective immune adjuvant for an inactivated H5N1 vaccine.” Note: GSC is beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. CD4 and CD8 are T Helper Cells. IL2-cytokine white immune cell regulator. IL4-induces differentiation to Th2 cells.
Food-Beverage: Barone LR, Assil D, et al, “Sugar and dietary fibre composition influence, by different hormonal response, the satiatiing capacity of a fruit-based and a beta-glucan-enriched beverage,” Food Funct, 3(1):67-75, WMD, 2012.
Food Poisoning – Listeria: Torello CO, et al, “Immunohematopoietic modulation by oral B-1,3-glucan in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes,” Int Immunopharmacology, Vol 10, Issue 12, P 1573-1579, Dec 2010. Quote: “In this study we demonstrated that the oral administration of B-1,3-glucan protects mice from a lethal dose of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) when administered prophylactically for 10 days at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, with survival rates up to 40%. These doses also prevented the myelosuppression and the splenomegaly caused by a sublethal infection with LM, due to increased numbers of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) in the bone marrow.” Note: Listeriosis is a serious bacterium infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes – serious food poisoning.”
Free Radical Scavinger – Environmental Toxins: Tuckman NB, Ozek DA, et al, “Beta-glucan effects on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in liver and brain,” Biotech Histochem, 1-8, PMID: 35073792, https://doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2022.2025902 , Jan 25, 2022. Quote: “2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental contaminant that is toxic to brain, heart, kidney and liver. TCDD toxicity is due to free radical formation. …The oxidative stress and histopathology caused by TCDD were ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment. Beta-glucan should be explored for preventing brain and liver damage caused by TCDD toxicity.”
Free Radical Scavinger – Pourahmad J, Shaki F, et al, “Proective effecdts of fungal B-(1-3)-D-glucan against oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by depleted uranium in isolated rat hepatocytes,.” Hum Exp Toxicol, 173-81, PMID 201522489, Mar 2011. Quote: “In conclusion, our results confirmed the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of B-(1-3)-D-glucan and suggested this compound and silymarin as possible drug candidates for prophylaxis and treatment against depleted uranium toxic effects.”
Free Radical Scavinger: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC; “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: “Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment.”
Free Radical Scavenger: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Free radical scavenging assays were repeated in different models, which then confirmed the antioxidant effect of beta 1,3-glucan. In light of what is presently known about the potential of free radicals to accelerate aging, cause cancer and other degenerative diseases, this particular effect of beta 1,3-glucan is especially important.”
Free Radical Scavenger: Anti-free Radical Activity of Beta(1-3)glucan Molecule. Seporga Laboratories, Sophia Antipolis, France. Research Report. 1990.
Free Radical Scavenging: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987. Quote: “…evidence suggest that glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger.”
Free Radicals: Sener G, Toklu H, et al; “Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis,” Int Immunopharmacol:1387-96 Epub 2005/Aug 2005. Quote: “Sepsis leads to various organ damage and dysfunction. One of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals. …Elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels in septic rats [was] significantly reduced to control levels in beta-glucan treated rats. Since beta-glucan administration reversed these oxidant responses, it seems likely that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-induced oxidative organ injury.”
Fungal Defense, Diseases including Infection: See also Candida, Aflatoxin Aspergillus and different fungal types
Fungal Disease-Candida albicans: Assis Leandro Jose de, Bain JM, Liddle C, et al, “Nature of B-1,3-Glucan-Exposing Features on Candida albicans Cell Wall and Their Modulation,” PMID: 36218309, https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.02605-22 , Oct 11 2022. Quote: “We…reveal that downstream effectors of protein kinase A (PKA)…regulate the secretion of major glucanases, modulate the levels of B-1-3 glucan exposure, and influence the virulence of C. albicans in an invertebrate model of systemic infection. Our data support the view that B-1-3 glucan masking contributes to immune evasion and the virulence of a major fungal pathogen of humans.”
Fungal Disease-Effective Antifungal Agents: Chibuike Ibe, Oladele RO, Omran Alamir, “Our pursuit for effective antifungal agents targeting fungal cell wall components, where are we?,” 106477, Nov 16 2021. Quote: “…Countering the cell wall remodeling process will enhance the effectiveness of B-1,3-glucan-active antifungal agents.”
Fungal Disease – Candida albicans: Hameed S, Hans Sandeep, et al, “Revisiting the Vital Drivers and Mechanisms of B-Glucan Masking in Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans,” Pathogens, 10(8); 942, https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080942, July 27 2021. Quote: “C. albicans is a dimorphic, opportunistic fungus that causes candidiasis in immunocompromised patients, particularly among those individuals undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplants, burn injuries, etc. …When fungi infect our bodies, the [fungal] cell wall is crucial in triggering an immune response. The inner cell wall of fungi is high in glucan, which is responsible for triggering an inflammatory response, but immune cells are unable to recognize it. As soon as the glucan is exposed, it is recognized by Dectin-1, a C-type lectin PRR.
When Dectin-1 recognizes B-glucan, myeloid cell signaling is activated along with the phagocytic response, and a pro-inflammatory cytokine response is introduced. Other activities for destroying fungal cells by neutrophils and macrophages are also initiated via their reactive oxygen (RO) and reactive nitrogen (RN) species. …With the aid of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, Dectin-1 receptors [after recognizing B-glucan 1,3/1,6] boost innate immunity against Candida albicans.
…Dectin-1 detects β-glucan, triggering an immunogenic response that leads to cellular activation in innate immune cells and fungal phagocytosis. When PRRs are activated, DCs enter the picture and take care of both innate and adaptive immunity by guarding pathogen entry. As a result, controlling the amount and exposure of immunogenic cell-wall ligand is an important feature of the host-pathogen relationship that requires further investigation.”
Fungal Defense/Mycotoxins: Liu Y, Wu Q, Wu X, et al, “Structure, preparation, modification, and bioactivities of B-glucan and mannan from yeast cell wall: A review,” 173:445-456, PMID: 33497691, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.125 , Mar 15 2021. Quote: “Many studies have shown that B-glucan and mannan from yeast cell wall have the potential to replace antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of animal diseases, thereby reducing the development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. B-Glucan and mannan had a variety of biological functions, including improving the intestinal environment, stimulating innate and acquired immunity, absorbing mycotoxins, enhancing antioxidant capacity, and so on.”
Fungal Defense: de Andre’s MV, Catala C, et al, “The lymphocytic scavenger receptor CD5 shows therapeutic potential in mouse models of fungal infection,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, PMID: 33046489, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01103-20, Oct 12 2020. Quote: “Invasive fungal diseases represent an unmet clinical need that could benefit from novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Thus, we explored the therapeutic potential of the lymphocyte class I scavenger receptor CD5, a …component of the antifungal host immune response that binds to fungal B-glucans. Results: shCD5-induced survival of lethally infected mice [Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans] was dose and time-dependent and concomitant with reduced fungal load and increased leukocyte infiltration in primary target organ. The results prompt further exploration of the adjunctive therapeutic potential of shCD5 in severe invasive fungal diseases.”
Fungal Defense: Dutta O, Espinosa V, et al, “Dectin-1 Promotes Type I and III Interferon Expression to Support Optimal Antifungal Immunity in the Lung,” Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 10:321, https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00321, PMID: 32733815, Jul 8 2020. Quote: “Pulmonary infections with Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) are a significant cause of invasive fungal disease and lead to high morbidity and mortality in diverse populations throughout the world. …we demonstrate that dectin-1-mediated recognition of B-glucan on the cell wall of the clinically relevant fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus promotes the activation of a protective cascade of type I and III interferon expression [antiviral]. We further demonstrate that exogenous administration of type I and III interferons can rescue inadequate antifungal responses in dectin-1 mice, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefit of these cytokines as activators of antifungal defense in the context of innate defects.” Note: “Exogenous” is originating or produced outside a cell, tissue or organism. Note: Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan… . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens.
Fungal Infection: Han AB, Baruah K, Cox E, et al, “Structure-Functional Activity Relationship of B-Glucans from the Perspective of Immunomodulation: A Mini-Review,” Front. Immunol., https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00658, April 22 2020. Quote: “B-Glucan is a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that is detected upon fungal infection to trigger the host’s immune responses in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Recognition of B-glucan by Dectin-1 [a beta glucan receptor] on macrophages activates the downstream signaling pathway. As a consequence of these signaling pathway, Dectin-1 triggers phagocytosis, ROS generation, microbial killing, and cytokine production. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that pre-administration of B-glucans resulted in innate immune memory, protecting the mice against re-infection with a lethal Escherichia coli.” Note: ROS refers to reactive oxygen species or chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Phagocytosis is the engulfing and usually destruction of particulate matter; thus serving as an important bodily defense mechanism against infection by microorganisms.
Fungal Defense – Cryptococcosis Hester MM, Lee CK, Abraham A, et al, “Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis [fungus] using glucan particle-based vaccines containing novel recombinant antigens,” Vaccine, SO264-410X(19)31431-8, PMID: 31699504, https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201300213, Nov 4 2019. Quote: “Meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible for upwards of 180,000 deaths worldwide annually, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Currently there are no licensed fungal vaccines, and even with anti-fungal drug treatment, cryptococcal meningitis is often fatal. …Our lab previously demonstrated vaccination with recombinant cryptococcal proteins delivered in glucan particles (GPs) protects mice against an otherwise lethal infection. …These screens highlight the efficacy of Glucan-particle-subunit vaccines and identify promising antigens for further testing in anti-cryptococcal, multi-epitope vaccine formulations.”
Fungal Defense – Candida glabrata: Ghannoum M, Long L, et al, “Activity of a novel 1,3-beta-D-glucan Synthase Inhibitor, Ibrexafungerp (formerly SCY-078), Against Candida glabrata,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, pil: AAC0 150-19, PMID: 31570395, https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.0510-19 , Sep 30 2019. Quote: “Ibrexafungerp (formerly SCY-078) [as] a novel glucan synthase inhibitor with oral availability, …was active against the majority of echinoncandin-resistant [fungal] strains [echinoncandins are antifungal drugs]. Time kill studies showed a 4 to 6-log reduction in growth at concentrations of 0.25 to 4 microns/ml of 24 and 48 hr.” Note: Infections caused by Candida glabrata can affect the urogenital tract or even cause systemic infections by entrance of the fungal cells in the bloodstream (Candidemis), especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients. C. glabrata is of special relevance in nosocomial infections due to its innately high resistance to antifungal agents. Echinoncandins are a class of antifungal drugs that target the fungal cell wall while inhibiting beta 1,3-d-glucan synthase enzyme. The beta 1,3-d-glucan synthase enzyme forms glucan, a major component of the fungal cell wall; therefore by inhibiting beta glucans synthesis, fungal cell walls, including pathogenic fungi, are damaged.
Fungal Defense – Candidiasis Candida Vulvovaginal Infection- : Larkin EL, Long L, Ghannoum M, et al, “A novel 1,3-beta-D-glucan inhibitor, Ibrexafungerp (formerly SCY078), Shows Potent Activity in the Lower pH Environment of Vulvovaginitis.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, AAC.02611-18, PMID: 30885896, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02611-18, Mar 18 2019. Quote: “Ibrexafungerp (IBX. formerly SCY078) is a novel glucan synthase inhibitor with oral availability being evaluated for efficacy against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). …Potent in vitro activity was demonstrated against Candida strains obtained at baseline and end of study visits…with no development of resistance. Importantly, activity of IBX in an acidic medium suggests a therapeutic advantage of this novel antifungal in the treatment of vaginal Candida infections.” (see also Candida glabrata)
Fungal Defense: Ambati S, Ferarro A, et al, “Dectin-1-Targeted Antifungal Liposomes Exhibit Enhanced Efficacy,” MSphere 4(2): e00121-19, PMID 30760610, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00025-19, March 6 2019. Quote: “Hundreds of fungal species…cause a wide variety of diseases, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, crytococcosis, coccidiodomycosis (valley fever), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Collectively, pathogenic fungi infect many different organs, but lungs are the most common site for deep mycoses. Globally, aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis kill about 1 million or more people each year.
Dectin-1 is a transmembrane receptor expressed in natural killer lymphocytes [immune cells]...containing (7A beta-glucan receptor) in mice and humans. … We demonstrated that sDectin-1-targeted, AmB-loaded DEC-AmB-LLs are significantly more effective at binding to and inhibiting the growth of fungal cells…DEC-AmB-LLs killed or inhibited A. fumigatus 10 times more efficiently than untargeted liposomes, [with] the potential to greatly enhance antifungal therapeutics.” Note: Patients are often treated with antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B loaded into liposomes (AMB-LLs). AmB-LLs were also coated with Dectin-1 to produce DEC-AMB-LLs. Dectin-1 coated liposomes were 10 times more efficient in killing or inhibiting A fumigatus than the uncoated liposomes often prescribed.”
Fungal Diseases – Infection : Chen SM, Zou Z, et al, “The critical role of Dectin-1 in host controlling systemic Candida krusei infection,” Am J Transi es, 11(2);721-732, PMID 30899374, Feb 15, 2019. Quote: “Candida krusei is a major non-albicans [fungal infection] …which causes mortal infections in immune deficiency population. …We found that Dectin-1 ligand B-(1,3)-glucan [is] markedly exposed on the cell surface of C. krusei… . Dectin-1 is required for host myeloid cells recognition, killing of C. krusei, and development of subsequent Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated adaptive immune response.” Note: In neutropenic [low neutrophil white blood cell count] patients, fungemia [presence of fungi in the blood] is associated with high mortality. Candida krusei should be suspected in patients with leukemia who are receiving fluconazole prophylaxis.
Fungal Defense – Asthma & Allergic Airway Diseases: Baremes KR, Kita H, “Innate and adaptive immune responses to fungi in the airway,” J Allergy Clin Immunol, 142(2):353-363, PMID 30080527, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.06.016 , Aug 2018. Quote: “Exposure, sensitization, or both to fungi are strongly associated with development of asthma and allergic airway diseases. Furthermore, global climate change will likely increase the prevalence of fungi and enhance their antigenicity. …Fungi contain cell-wall molecules, such as B-glucan and chitin, and secrete biologically active proteases and glycosidases. Airway epithelial cells and innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells, are equipped with cell -surface molecules that react to these fungal products, resulting in production of cytokines and proinflammatory mediators. As a result, the adaptive arm of antifungal immunity, including Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-type CD4-T cells, is established, reinforcing protection against fungal infection and causing detrimental immunopathology … .”
Fungal Defense: Camili, Eren E, Williams DL, et al, “Impaired phagocytosis directs human monocyte activation in response to fungal derived B-glucan particles,” Eur J Immunol, 48(5):757-770, PMID 29313961. May 2018. Quote: “Recognition of the fungal cell wall carbohydrate B-glucan by the host receptor Dectin-1 elicits broad immunomodulatory responses, such as phagocytosis and activation of oxidative burst. These responses are essential for engulfing and killing fungal pathogens.”
Fungal Diseases – Infection : Camilli G, Tabouret G, Quintin J, “The Complexity of Fungal B-Glucan in Health and Disease: Effects on the mononuclear Phagocyte System,” Front Immunol, 16:9:673, PMID 29755450, Apr 16, 2018, Quote: “Study of this molecule [B-glucan] has been motivated by its importance as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern [PAMP] upon fungal infection as well as by its promising clinical utility as biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Its immune effect is attributed to the ability to bind to different receptors expressed on the cell surface of phagocytic and cytotoxic innate immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells. …B-glucans exhibit antitumor and antimicrobial activities by modulating the biologic responses of mononuclear phagocytes [macrophages et al].” Note: A Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) is a distinct evolutionary conserved structure on pathogens detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), with PRRS relied upon by the innate immune system in the defense against invading microbial pathogens.
Fungal Defense-Trained Immunity: Rusek P, Wala M, et al, “Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity,” Int J Mol Sci, 19(2):456, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020456, PMID 29401667, Feb 3 2018. Quote: “… For example, during training of human monocytes with B-glucan (a component of fungal cell wall) from Candida albicans (a human opportunistic pathogen), the immunity is induced not only against fungi, but also against bacteria, viruses and even parasites. Furthermore, it was observed that training of human monocytes induced by chitin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae …leads to enhanced capacity to eliminate microbes like Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), or Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) compared to non-trained human monocytes.”
Fungal Defense: Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor – Takano T, Motozono C, et al, “Dectin-1 Intracellular domain determines species-specific ligand spectrum by modulating receptor sensitivity,” JBC Papers in Press, Manuscrit M117.800847, PMID: 28848046, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.800847, Aug 28, 2017. Quote: “Dectin-1 is a well-characterized CLR [c-type lectin receptor] that recognizes B-glucan. …Our bodies are continuously exposed to and infected by various types of pathogens, most of which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)… An…additional member of emerging PRRs is the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) [including Dectin-1] that sense pathogens or damaged tissues to trigger innate immune responses.” Note: Dectin-1 has been shown to recognize species of several fungal genera, including Candida, Pnemocystis, Penicillium and others. Recognition of these organisms triggers many protective pathways, such as fungal uptake by phagocytosis and killing via respiratory burst. Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines.
Fungal Pathogen Vaccines: Liao G, et al, “6-O-Branched Oligo-β-glucan-Based Antifungal Glycoconjugate Vaccines”, ACS Infect Dis ; 2(2):123-31. PMID 27624963. Feb 12 2016. . Quote: “β-Glucans have a conserved β-1,3-glucan backbone with sporadic β-1,3- or β-1,6-linked short glucans as branches at the 6-O-positions, and the branches may play a critical role in their immunologic functions. … Thus, branched oligo-β-glucans were identified as functional epitopes for antifungal vaccine design and the corresponding protein conjugates as promising antifungal vaccine candidates.” Note: Epitope – the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Fungal Defense: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, (https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/i.celimm.2015.10.007) ; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. PMID:26549577, Nov 2015. Quote: “The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganisms…Microparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. .…Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.”
Fungal Diseases – Aspergillosis: Clemons KV, Danielson ME, et al, “Whole glucan particles as a vaccine against murine Aspergillosis.” J Med Microbiol, 63(Pt 12):1750-9. PMID 25288643. Dec 2014. Quote: “Vaccination with … Saccharomyces cerevisiae protects against experimental infection by pathogenic fungi of five genera. …Vaccination with whole glucan particles…proved protective against systemic aspergillosis, equivalent to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, supporting the potential of particulate B-glucans, alone or conjugated, as vaccines against aspergillosis.” Note: Saccharomyces cerevisiae in research is particulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Aspergillosis is a condition in which certain fungi infect the tissues. It most commonly affects the lungs.
Fungal Infections Vaccine Conjugate: Cox DJ, Anonysamy M, Stevens DA, “An immunomodulatory yeast-derived beta glucan as a component of a conjugate, “ National Institutes of Health, grant/NIH/R43-AI107999-01A1, Nov 30, 2014. Quote: “Fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients, are a serious and growing problem. …Aspergillus fumigatus is a primary cause of these infections in several patient populations: transplants, leukemics, genetic deficiencies such as chronic granulomatous disease and others, with mortality remaining high. The goal of this proposal is to develop a prototype glucan-protein vaccine by conjugating a protein to a particulate [beta] glucan immunomodulator, a cell wall component of many pathogenic fungi. The work described in this proposal will examine the potential of conjugating a specific, immunodominant recombinant protein from Aspergillus to [beta glucan-commercial name omitted] and enhancing the protective capacity of the vaccine in comparison to a conjugate with a non-fungal protein BSA. A [panfungal] vaccine of this type would not only save significant healthcare cost, but would reduce serious fungal infection in numerous patients and more importantly, save lives.”
Fungal Defense: Lee DH, Kim HW, “Innate immunity induced by fungal B-glucans via dectin-1 signaling pathway,” Int J Med Mushrooms, 16(1):1-16,PMID: 24940900, 2014. Quote: “The immunomodulating activities of innate immune cells are augmented by the binding of B-glucans to dectin-1 that is expressed by macrophages or dendritic cells. Upon binding B-glucan, innate immune cells activate adaptive immune cells such as B and T lymphocytes or natural killer cells by secreting various cytokines such as interleukins (IL-4, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α. Water-insoluble B–glucans have stronger immunostimulating activities than their water-soluble counterparts. B-glucans have antifungal activity that is similar to their anticancer activities…”
Fungal Diseases – Environmental Toxins – Vetvicka V, “Effects of B-glucan on some environmental toxins: An overview.” Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; ;158(1):1-4. PMD: 24399292. Mar 2014. Quote: “…glucan reduces the immunosuppressive effects of a number of agents including chemo therapy and radiation. … An overview of the effects of glucan on the mycotoxin, aflotoxin and other environmental toxins (mercury-thimerosal, depleted uranium). Glucan is effective as a natural immunomodulator and could be used as an inexpensive solution to reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins.”
Fungal Diseases – Candida albicans & Aspergillus fumigatus: Fidan l, Kalkanci A, Yesilyurt E, Erdal B, “In vitro effects of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus on dendritic cells and the role of beta glucan in this effect.” Adv Clin Exp Med 23(1):17-24, PMID: 24595999, Jan-Feb 2014. Quote: “Dendritic cells (DCs) are able to initiate and regulate the immune response to fungal infections. B-glucan stimulates the immune system, modulating cellular and humoral immunity. It (B-glucan) has a beneficial effect in fighting fungal infections. We investigated the in vitro effect of C. albicans and A. fumigatus infection on human dendritic cells (DCs). …the addition of B-glucan to the dendritic cells stimulated by fungi promoted the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. …B-glucan can be used as a novel stimulator to dendritic cell-based vaccination against fungal infections.”
Fungal Defense: Jun Ma, Underhill D, “B-glucan signaling connects phagocytosis to autophagy,” Glycobiology, Vol 23, Iss 9, P 1047-1051, https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwtor6, Jun 6 2013. Quote: “Fungal B-glucan recognition by the receptor Dectin-1 triggers inflammatory immune responses in macrophages and dendritic cells that are appropriate for defense against fungal pathogens. Among these responses is the specific recruitment of the autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3) to phagosomes containing fungi.” Note: Autophagy refers to consumption of the body’s own tissue in a metabolic process.
Fungal Diseases – Environmental Toxins, Pereyra CM, Cavaglieri LR, et al, “The corn influence on the adsorption levels of aflatoxin B, and zearalenone by yeast cell wall [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan].” J Appl Microbiol, 114:655-62, PMID 23176728, https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12082. Mar 2013. Quote: “One of the most efficient prevention strategies to prevent mycotoxicoses is the dietary supplementation with materials that reduce the toxin bioavailability in the digestive tract and, therefore, their adverse effects on animals. Basic ingredients and dietary supplements such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] may have functional properties in the diet and show satisfactory results when added to feedstuff either as active cells or as cell wall components (Shetty and Jespersen 2006). α-d-mannan and β-d-glucan are the two major polysaccharides present in S. cerevisiae. They constitute up to 90% of the cell wall dry weight and have remarkable properties to interact with the host immune system and constitute a good source of adsorbent.”
Fungal Diseases: Batbayar S, Lee DH, Kim HW, “Immunomodulation of Fungal B-Glucan in Host Defense Signaling by Dectin-1,” Biomol Ther (Seoul), (5):433-45, PMID 24009832, https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.5.433, Sep 2012. Quote: “Fungal and particulate B-glucans…can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer’s patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection. …In mammals, B-glucans have been shown to induce diverse biological activities against fungal infections and tumors. …Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the PRRs [pattern recognition receptor]of B-glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance systemic immune function. …As a source of soluble fiber, B-glucan may lessen the risk of heart-related diseases by lowering total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.” Note: The innate immune cells in error think beta glucan is pathogenic fungus (PAMP) and respond even though beta glucan is not a pathogenic health hazard; thus creating an immune response to kill actual pathogenic fungus.
Fungal Disease – Environmental Toxins: Shetty PH, Hald B, Jespersen L, “Surface binding of aflatoxin B1 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with potential decontaminating abilities in indigenous fermented foods,” Int J Food Microbiol: 113(1):41-6, PMID: 16996157, https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrooemid4o.2006.07.013 , Jan 1 2007. Quote: “The results obtained show that some strains of S. cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan], viable or non-viable, are effective aflatoxin binders and these properties should be considered in the selection of starter cultures for relevant indigenous fermented foods where high aflatoxin level is a potential health risk.”
Fungal Defense: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; “Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a ‘phagocytic synapse'” Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: “…Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity… . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. …Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influences the development of adaptive immunity…”
Fungal Defense: Drummond RA, Brown GD, “The Role of Dectin-1 in the host defense against fungal infections,” Curr Opin in Microbiol, Vol 14,Issue 4, PP 392-399, PMID 21803640, Aug 2011. Quote: “Dectin-1 is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that, through its ability to bind B-glucans, is involved in the recognition of several pathogenic fungi. Dectin-1 can stimulate a variety of cellular responses …including phagocytosis, cytokine production and the respiratory burst. ….Several advances in our understanding of Dectin-1 immunobiology have been made ….including demonstration of its ability to directly induce the development of adaptive immunity.”
Fungal Diseases – Environmental Toxins: Prado G, Madeira JEGC, Morais VAD, et al, “Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan],” 74(6):1003-6, PMID: 21669081, https://www.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028XJFP-10-380 , Jun 7 2011. Quote: Aflatoxin B(1) is a toxigenic and carcinogenic compound produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. …Aflatoxin B(1) contamination in peanuts was reduced after the addition of S. cerevisiae. The concentration of aflatoxin B(1) decreased by 74.4 and 55.9% after 7 and 15 days, respectively. …The use of S. cerevisiae [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] is a promising strategy for biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.”
Fungal Infection Diseases – Children: Katragkou A, Rollides E, “Best practice in treating infants and children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infections”, Curr. Opin. Infect .dis 24(3):225-229, WMD, PMID: 21455060, https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.013e3283460e22, 2011. Quote: “Although …treatment strategies based on surrogate markers (galactomannan and beta-glucan) have established utility in treating adults, limited data are available to guide pediatricians when managing children with invasive fungal infections. …The up-to-date data show that treatment recommendations are similar for pediatric and adult patients.”
Fungal Diseases-Human Study: Pietrantoni E, Signore F, et al, “Role of beta-glucan in the treatment of recurrent candidiasis and HPV-correlated lesions and reparative process of epidermis”, Minerva Ginecol. 62(1):1-5,” WMD, PMID: 20186110, Feb 2010. Quote: “From January to March 2008, 23 women with a history of recurrent candidiasis and 188 who underwent DTC [diathermocoagulation] for HPV-correlated vulvar legions were recruited at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynoco-logy of San Mamillo-Forlanini Hospital Rome. Results: A total of 209 women …completed the study. After the first month of treatment we [had] not found any evidence of disease in both groups. …”
Fungal Diseases: Rondanelli M, et al, “The Biological activity of beta-glucans”; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787; Jun 2009; Quote: “…Beta-glucans have [been] studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. …beta-1,3-glucans improve the body’s immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. …there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection].”
Fungal Diseases – Neutropenic Patients: Almyroudis NG and Segal BH, “Prevention and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in neutropenic patients.” Curr Opin Infect Dis, 22(4):385-393, WMD, 2009. Note: Neutropenic patients have an abnormally low neutrophil white blood cell count in the blood.
Fungal Mold Infections: Chandrasekar P, “Invasive mold infections: recent advances in management approaches, ” Leukemia Lymphoma, 50(5):703-715, WMD, 2009.
Fungal Infections: Sable CA, Strohmaier K, Chodakewitz JA, “Advances in antifungal therapy,” Annu Rev Med, 59:361-79, WMD, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.59.06.071602, PMID: 17967129, 2008. Quote: “The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has increased …owing to the increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts. These infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There have also been significant improvements in diagnostics; the galactomantian enzyme immunoassay and the beta-glucan test are now part of the EORTC/MSG criteria for diagnosis of IFI.”
Fungal Diseases-Human Study: Silva E, Azevedo CD, et al; “The use of glucan as immunostimulant in the treatment of a severe case of chromoblastomycosis” [chronic fungal skin disease]; Dept. of Patologia [Pathology], U Federal do Maranhao Maranhao, Brazil; Mycoses, April 26, 2008. Quote: “We report the case of an alternative treatment for a patient with a severe form of chromoblastomycosis [chronic fungal skin disease] that responded poorly to the traditional antifungal therapy. We hereby show, in this study, the improvement of lesions after treatment with itraconazole associated with an intra muscular administration of glucan. We observed that the regression of lesions was associated with an improvement of the cellular immune response.”
Fungal Diseases: Schorey JS, Lawrence C; “The pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1: from fungi to mycobacteria.” Curr Drug Targets. 9(2):123-9; Dept of Bilogical Sciences, U of Notre Dame. Feb 9, 2008. Quote: “The ability of the innate immune system to quickly recognize and respond to an invading pathogen is essential for controlling the infection. For this purpose, cells of the immune system express receptors which recognize evolutionarily conserved structures expressed by various pathogens but absent from host cells. …Dectin -1 is a type II transmembrane protein which binds beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucans. It [Dectin-1`] is expressed on most cells of the innate immune system and has been implicated in phagocytosis as well as killing of fungi by macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells.”
Fungal Infections – Cancer and Neutropenia: Segal BH, Almyroudis NG, et al, “Prevention and Early Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infection in Patients with Cancer and Neutropenia and in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in the Era of Newer Broad Spectrum Antifungal Agents and Diagnostic Adjuncts,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol 44, Issue 3, pps 402-409, https://doi.org/10.1086/510677, PMID: 19506476, Feb 2007. Quote: “Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality among patients with cancer and prolonged neutropenia and among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Detection of B-glucan has received US Food and Drug Administration approval for use for presumptive diagnosis of IFI. Among patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, the assay was highly sensitive and specific in detecting early IFIs, including candidiasis, fusariosis, trichosporanosis, and aspergillosis.”
Fungal Pathogen Vaccine Adjuvant: Honey K, “B-Glucan conjugate provides protection,” [as a fungal vaccine], Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, Vol 4,p814; https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1716. Oct 1 2005. Quote: “At present there are no antifungal vaccines available for the numerous people, in particular, immunocompromised individuals, who are at risk of infection with opportunistic fungal pathogens. …data published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine …indicate immunization with the B-glucan laminarin conjugated to the diphtheria toxiod CRM197 protects mice from infection with Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus….These data show that a single carrier-protein-conjugated B-glucan can induce a protective immune response to subsequent challenge with distinct fungal pathogens that cause markedly disparate disease states.”
Fungal Pathogen Vaccine: Torosantucci A, et al; “A novel glyco-conjugate vaccine against fungal pathogens.” J Exp Med, 202(5):597-606. PMID: 16147975 PMCID: PMC2212864. Sep 2005. Quote: ….”Anti-beta glucan antibodies bound to C. albicans hyphae and inhibited their growth in vitro….Remarkably, Lam-CRM-vaccinated mice also were protected from a lethal challenge with conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus… .” Note: LAM is laminarin, an immunogenic beta glucan.
Fungal Diseases : Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan ”, Immunol Letters ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005, Quote: …”we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1–> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [Interpretation: respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]
Fungicidal Activity: Pelizon AC, Kaneno R, et al; “Immunomodulatory activities associated with beta-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.” Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Inst of Biosciences, State U of Sao Paulo Brazil. Physio Res. 54(5):557-64, 2005. Quote: “B-glucan enhances fungicidal activity against P. brasiliensis...B-glucan primes for higher IL12 and TNF-alpha production….B-glucan increases NK [Natural Killer white immune cells]. …The lower dose [20 mg/ml] was more effective to increase NK and fungicidal activity….Together, our results suggest that B-glucan derived from S. cerevisiae is able to improve Immune functions that contribute to P. brasiliensis elimination.” Note: The mitosporic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the causative agent of a true systemic (endemic) mycosis [fungus] called paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) common in parts of South America.
Fungal Defense,” Crit Rev Immunol, 24(3):193-203, PMID 15482254, 2004. Quote: “Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan… . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens…having a key role in the innate responses to these pathogens.”
Fungal Pathogens: Brown GD, Gordon S, Herre J, Willment JA, “The role of Dectin-1 in antifungal immunity,” Crit Rev Immunol, 24(3):193-203, PMID 15482254, 2004. Quote: “Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan… . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens…having a key role in the innate responses to these pathogens.“
Fungal Infection: Octabsi Z, Mattiuzzi G, Estey E, Kantarijars H, et al, “Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic, adjunct for invasive fungal infections” validating, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome,” Clin Infect Dis. 39(3):199-205. 2004.
Fungal Defense – Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Brown GD, Gordon S, Herre J, Willment JA, “The role of Dectin-1 in antifungal immunity,” Crit Rev Immunol, 24(3):193-203, PMID 15482254, 2004. Quote: “Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan… . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens…having a key role in the innate responses to these pathogens.“
Fungal Infections: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; “Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity.” Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003. Quote: “B-Glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many fungi which possesses immunomodulatory activities. …The innate immune response is essential for the control of fungal infections, and there is increasing evidence that B-glucans are involved in initiating many aspects of this response. …the recognition of B-glucans in both [vertebrate and invertebrate] systems results in the triggering of immune responses, designed primarily for the control of fungal pathogens. The recognition of fungal pathogens occurs through both opsonic (mainly complement) and nonopsonic mechanisms, and as conserved structural components, B-glucans…play an important role in the non-opsonic recognition of these [fungal] pathogens.
Indeed, many of the B-glucan receptors…have been shown to contribute to the recognition and phagocytosis of these organisms [fungal pathogens]. … B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine… . Thus B-glucans appear to have an important role in the innate immune response to fungal pathogens and in initiating a protective adaptive response.”
Fungal Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatiized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: “The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections.”
Fungal Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; “Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients.” Ann. Surg.; Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.”
Fungal Diseases: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,” U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”
Fungal Diseases-Human Study: Browder IW. Williams DL, Di Luzio NR, et al, “Modification of postoperative C-albicans sepsis by glucan immunostimulation.” Int J Immunopharmacol, PubMed 6724765, 6:19-26, 1984. Quote: “…glucan increased survival and reduced renal pathology associated with C. albicans challenge in the post operative period. These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post operative infections.”
Fungal Infection: DiLuzio NR,”NR, “Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”
Fungal Diseases: Williams DL, Cook JA, Di Luzio NR et al, “Protective effect of glucan in experimentally induced candidiasis.” J Reticuoendothel Soc, Pubmed 702473, (6):479-490, Jun 23 1978
Gastrointestinal Disorders – Beta Glucan: Muthuramalingam K, Kim Y, et al, “B-glucan, ” ‘the knight of health sector’:critical insights on physiochemical heterogeneities, action mechanisms and health implications,’ Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 1-37, PMID: 33819119, https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1908221 , April 5 2021. Quote: “B-glucans, the class of biological response modifier has unceasing attention, not only for its immune stimulating but also for its role as prebiotics, modulator of physiological events etc. and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular diseases [,] … wound care, metabolic dysbiosis, fatty liver disorders and endurance training associated energy metabolism … .”
Gastrointestinal Mucosal Damage: Veraperumal SV, Qiu HM, et al, “Restitution of epithelial cells during intestinal mucosal wound healing: the effect of a polysaccharide from the scleroium of lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden,” J Ethnopharmacol, 114024, PMID: 33727110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114024 , Mar 13 2021. Quote: “The present study reveals that the prepared B-glucan accelerates intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and migration… . Hence, B-glucan can be employed as a prospective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases associated with gastrointestinal mucosal damage, such as peptic ulcers and inflammatory bowel disease.”
Gene Delivery System – Nanoparticles: Kyungwoo L, Min D, et al, “Self-Assembling B-Glucan Nanomedicine for the Delivery of siRNA [small interfering RNA],” Biomedicines, 8(11);E497, PMID: 33198404, https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110497, Nov 12 2020. Quote: “We aimed to design and manufacture a transporter capable of delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into the skin without causing any damage. B-glucans are unique chiral polysaccharides with well-defined immunological properties and supramolecular wrapping ability. …In this study, B-glucan nanoparticles were designed and manufactured to deliver genetic material to the target cells. The B-glucan molecules were self-assembled with an siRNA into nanoparticles of 300-400 nm in diameter via a conformational transition process, in order to construct a gene delivery system. The assembled gene nanocarriers were associated with high gene-loading ability. …Our results provide evidence that B-glucan nanoparticles can be effectively used to deliver siRNA [small interfering RNA] into the cells.” [1,000 Nanos = 1 Micron]
Glucan Particles (GP): See “Beta Glucan” and “Carrier”
G R A S: FDA Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21-Chapter 1-Subchapter B-Part 184-Subpart B-184.1983 – FDA GRAS. Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Beta-1,3(D)-Glucan. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Go to https://www.betaglucan.org/fdagras/ for more details. Feb 15, 2019. Quote: “FDA Classification – Classified as ‘Yeast extract (BakerS)” by the FDA; more specifically Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan or Beta-1,3(D)-glucan, which is derived from the yeast cell wall of bakers yeast scientifically designated as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. …The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) classifies “Yeast extract (Bakers)” as “Generally Recognized as Safe or GRAS. The GRAS classification is also set forth in the FDA “APPENDIX A FOOD ADDITIVES”
G R A S: The USP Admission Evaluation of Beta Glucan after a safety review (p43-45) for 2015 stated that there being no safety concerns, by a unanimous vote, Beta Glucan was admitted for USP monograph development according to the USP Guideline.
G R A S: USP, Food Chemicals Codex, “Beta Glucan from Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae monograph).”IN: Third Supplement, FCC 7, Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia; 2010.
Gut Microbiota, Alzheimer’s Disease, Brain Insulin Resistance: Xu M, Mo X, et al, “Yeast B-glucan alleviates cognitive deficit by regulating gut microbiota and metabolite in AB1-42-induced Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like mice,” Int J Biol Macromol:161:258-270, PMID: 32522544, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jibiomac.2020.05.180 , Oct 15 2020. Quote: “Results indicated that yeast B-glucans could prominently shape the intestinal flora and …AD [Alzheimer’s Disease] mice treated with small-molecular yeast B-glucan…exhibited evident alterations of the composition of the gut microbiota, especially in some beneficial bacteria and inflammatory-related bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Oscillibacter, Mucispirillum, Alistipes, Anaerotruncus, and Rikenella. …
This study broadened the underlying applications of yeast B-glucans as a novel dietary supplementation to prevent early-stage pathologies associated with AD [Alzheimer’s Disease] by regulating gut microbiota and the potential mechanism might be ameliorating [improve negative situation] brain IR [brain insulin resistance].”
Hayfever: See Allergies. Technically allergic rhinitis. Unlike a cold, hay fever is not caused by a virus but allergens.
Heart – Coronary Artery Disease: Cardiovascular Disease, Myocardial Injury
Heart – Cardiovascular Disease: Wouk J, Dekker RFH, Queiroz, et al, “B-Glucans as a panacea for a healthy heart? Their roles in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases,” Int J Biol Macromol, 17:80141-8130(21)00366-4. PMID: 33609583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.087 , Feb 2021. Quote: “The B-glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, B-glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming B-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors. …[Summary in study]: β-Glucans decrease aggregation of atherosclerotic plaque, size and secretion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are reduced after intake of β-glucan. [and] β-Glucans reduce oxidative stress preventing & ameliorating cardiovascular diseases.”
Heart / Myocardial Injury/Cardioprotective: Cetin E, “Pretreatment with B-glucan attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats,” Exp Physiol, https://www.doi.org/10.1113/EP086739, PMID: 30677174, Jan 24, 2019. Quote: “This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with B-glucan,…from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury… . The oral pretreatment of B-glucan prevented almost all parameters of isooproterenol induced myocardial injury in rats.”
Heart – Artherogenic progression: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality.” U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: “…consumption of …yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels…highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice..”
Heart – Vascular Injury: Chen J, Seviour R, “Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1–3), (1–6)-glucans” Mycol Res 111(Pt6):635-52, PMID 17590323, Jun 2007. Quote: “The literature suggests beta-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. … The major risk is vascular injury leading to heart disease, which is accelerated by increased lipid levels and hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury.”
Heart -Human Clinical Trial- Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Asrsaether E, Rydningen M, et al; “Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting.” Dept of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ Hosp of N Norway, Norway. Sand Cardiovasc J. 40(5):298-304; PubMed 17012141. Oct 2006. Quote: “…The aims of the present study were to examine the safety of pretreatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to investigate whether beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment could suppress inflammatory response and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury following CABG. ……Twenty one patients scheduled for CABG were assigned to oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucan 700 mg (Group 1) or 1 400 mg (Group 2) five consecutive days before surgery and were compared with a control group (Group 3). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and on the first, third and fifth postoperative day for analysis of acute-phase reactants, hematology, cytokines and myocardial enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment is safe in patients undergoing CABG [Coronary artery bypass grafting] and may protect against ischemia reperfusion injury following CABG.”
Heart – Coronary Artery Disease: Robert Nicolosi, Stacey J Bell, Bruce R Bistrian, Isaac Greenberg, R Armour Forse and George L Blackburn, “Cholesterol Benefits from Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Purified from Yeast Cell Wall,” Nutrition and Infection Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; the Centers for the Study of Nutrition and Medicine and for Nutritional Research, and Clowes Surgical Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 208-212, August 1999. Quote: “The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men. … The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations and was well tolerated…The link between elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the risk of developing coronary artery disease has been clearly established…Elevated plasma cholesterol and, in particular, LDL-cholesterolconcentrations are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, whereas an elevated of HDL-cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular…The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber lowered total cholesterol and raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly. …
Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration. …Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products.”
Heart Disease: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “…immunosuppression is observed in people with stress-related disease such as coronary heart disease. Under such influences the number of macrophages [white immune cells] available are reduced and unable to participate in the immune cascade, which caused an even greater immunosuppression.
Beta 1,3 glucan has proven to both stimulate and activate the macrophage cells, which will counter these negative effects. …People with high risk of atherosclerosis should definitely add beta 1,3 glucan to their diet in addition to any cholesterol-reducing drugs.
Macrophage activation helps draw extra cholesterol from the blood, prevent further plaque formation on the arterial walls and phagocytes [eats] existing plaque which is recognized as a foreign body.”
Heart Disease: Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, Arnold AH, Ostroff G, Forse RA, “Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids [cholesterol included],” Critical Rev Food Science Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 39(2):189-202, March 1999: Quote: “Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. One way to reduce the risk of developing the disease is to lower serum cholesterol levels by making dietary changes. In addition to reducing intake of total fat, saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol can be further reduced by added fiber, especially from sources rich in beta-glucan. …The yeast-derived fiber is a more concentrated source of beta-glucan than the oat product.”
Heart – Atherosclerotic Complications: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L., “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” Immunology Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote: “Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions.“ [Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries.]
Hemopoietic Recovery: Hofer M, Pospisil M, “Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by B-glucans: a review.” Molecules, Sep 15;16(9): 7969-79. WMD, PubMed 21921869. 2011. Quote: “B-glucans have been shown to support murine hematopoiesis suppressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy. They also enhance stem cell homing and engraftment.” Note: “Hematopoiesis” is the process of creating new blood cells in the body. All blood cells start off as hematopoietic stem cells, and then specialize or differentiate into myeloid cells including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, or eosinophils; or lymphoid cells including T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.
Hemopoietic (or hematopoietic) Recovery – Formation of Blood Cells: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan;“Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; https://www.doi.org/10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis following injury.” NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.
Hemopoietic Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”. Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.
Hemopoietic Stimulation-Human Study: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288. Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983. Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation.”
Hepatitis B Vaccine Adjuvant: Mallakpour S, Azadi E, et al, “Chitosan, alginate, hyaluronic acid, gums, and B-glucan as potent adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems for viral threats including SARS-CoV-2: A review,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, https://doi.org/10.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.155G , May 25 2021. Quote: “Adjuvants through augmenitng the immunogenicity of weaker immunogens, increase the effect of the vaccine, and reduce antigen amount and required immunization frequency for protective immunity. …B-glucan …acted as antigen-presenting cells, targeted carrier and immunopotentiator. The prepared particles [B-glucan] showed strong immune responses (humoral and cellular) without toxicity. …Indeed, glucan particles showed great performance as adjuvant and antiviral immunity components for the hepatitis B vaccine. …glucan particles could induce strong cytokine-mediated immunity.”
Hepatic Metastases : Sherwood. E.R., et al., ”Soluble Glucan and Lymphokine-activated Killer (LAK) Cells in the Therapy of Experimental Hepatic Metastases,” Chemical Abstracts; 108:179752V. 1988.
Hepatic Metastases : Williams DL, DiLuzio NR, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease.” Hepatology 5(20: 198-206. PMID: 3884476, Mar-Apr 1985. Quote: “Glucan, a particulate beta-1,3 polyglucose immunomodulator, was evaluated for its ability to modify hepatic metastases and survival in mice with reticulum cell sarcoma. ..co-incubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”
Hepatitis B: Soares E, Groothuismink ZMA, et al, “Glucan Particles Are a Powerful Adjuvant for the HBsAg [hepatitis B surface antigen], Favoring Antiviral Immunity, ” Mol Pharm, 16:5:1971-1981, PMID: 30964694, DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01322, May 6 2019. Quote: “This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GPS [neutral yeast-derived glucan particles] can have a significant role against the hepatitis B virus by favoring antiviral immunity.”
Hepatitis B: Yu X, Zhang D, et al, “Oral administered particulate yeast-derived glucan promotes hepatitis B virus clearance in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model,” PLoS ONe, 10(4):e0123559, PMCID: PMC4391928, April 9, 2015. Quote: “Our results demonstrate that particulate yeast-derived glucan (PYDG) significantly enhances Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific Th1 immune responses, accompanied by clearance of HBV DNA, and therefore holds promise for further development of therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.”
Hepatitis B: Mochizuki S, et al, “Macrophage specific delivery of TNF-alpha siRNA complexed with B-1,3-glucan inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in a murine acute hepatitis model,” Biorg Med Chem, 21(9):2535-42, PMID: 23523387, May 1, 2013. Quote: “The complex [consisting of b-1,3-glucan and short interference RNS (siRNA)] significantly decreased the serum TNF-alpha level for the mouse model of LPS-induced acute hepatitis.”
Hepatitis – Viral: Williams DL and DiLuzio NR;“Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis by Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. in the Reticuloendothelial System and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease, Liehr and Grun, eds. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1983.
Hepatitis – Viral : Williams DL and DiLuzio NR; “Glucan-Induced Modification of murine Viral Hepatitis”. Science (1980), 208: 67-69. 1980.* Quote: “Thus glucan is capable of increasing survival, inhibiting hepatic necrosis, and maintaining an activated state of phagocytic activity in mice challenged with [mouse hepatitis virus strain] MHV-A59.”
Hepatitis: “Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis By Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. Elesevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1980.
Hernia-Human Trial: Champaul G, Barrat C, “Inguinal hernia repair with beta glucan-coated mesh: results at two-year follow up,” Hernia, Vol 9(2), pp 125-130, PMID: 15602625, Dec 16 2004. Quote: “115 patients with a mean age of 55 years, presenting a primary or recurrent hernia, were treated with a beta glucan-coated polypropylene mesh. Two years after operation the recurrence rate was 1.9%…94.2% had no pain and have returned to normal activity, work and sport. At 2 years follow up hernia repair with beta-glucan coated mesh has a low recurrence rate. Incidence of chronic pain is low.” Note: An inguinal hernia occurs when a part of the intestine or tissue goes through the abdominal wall or muscle.
Herpes-simplex 1 Virus – Human Trial: Urbancikova I, Hudackova D, et al, “Efficacy of Pleuran ( B-[1,3/1,6] glucan [insoluble] rom PLeurotus ostreatus) in the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus Tpe 1 Infection,” doi: 10.1155/2020/8562309, PMID: 32419831, Apr 13 2020. Quote: “One of the highly prevalent viral pathogens among children and adults causing infection…is herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). …Therefore the development of natural drugs with low toxicity that are able to enhance host antiviral defense against HSV infection is needed. B-Glucans represent a type of biologically active molecules possessing antiviral properties. …Active treatment with pleuran [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] …caused a significantly shorter duration of herpes simplex symptoms compared to the placebo group.”
Herpes-simplex 1: Marchetti M, Pisani S, Pietropaolo V, Seganti L, Nicoletti R, Degener A, Orsi N; “Antiviral effect of a polysaccharide from Schlerotium glucanicum towards herpes simples virus type 1 infection.” Planta Med, 62:4, 301-7. Aug 1996. Quote: “The antiviral effect of scleroglucan seems to be related to its binding with membrane glycoproteins of HSV-1 particles which impedes the complex interactions of the virus with the cell plasma membrane.”
Herpes-simplex: Kohl, et al., “Inhibition of Human Monocyte-Macrophage and Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity to Herpes-simplex Cells by Glucan”. J. Immunol. Methods; 29: 361-368. 1979.* Quote: “Particulate, cell-associated glucan irreversibly inhibited MP antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).”
Herpes-Zoster / Shingles: Banks WJ, Kranak J, Virgin JJ, “Natural Treatments for Shingles (Herpes Zoster), Natural Treatments for Dummies, 435 pp, Mar 30, 2015. Quote: “Shingles [Herpes Zoster] is the sequel to chicken pox. It causes pain typically followed by blisters that appear on either the left or right side of the body. It may also cause headache, fever, chills, and fatigue. …adopt a natural foods diet. If infected, supplement your diet with the following nutrients…whole [beta 1,3/1,6] glucan particle derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Proline-rich polypeptides, Vitamin C, Olive leaf extract, Zinc, Vitamin E, [and] Vitamin A. Ask your doctor for vitamin B12 injections, which can accelerate recovery… .”
High Blood Pressure – See Blood Pressure
Hyperbaric oxygen and Glucan-Human Study: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.” World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006. Quote: “… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.”
Hypocholesterolemia – Heart – Cardiovascular Disease: Wouk J, Dekker RFH, Queiroz, et al, “B-Glucans as a panacea for a healthy heart? Their roles in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases,” Int J Biol Macromol, 17:80141-8130(21)00366-4. PMID: 33609583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.087 , Feb 2021. Quote: “The B-glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, B-glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming B-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors. …[Summary in study]: β-Glucans decrease aggregation of atherosclerotic plaque, size and secretion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are reduced after intake of β-glucan. [and] β-Glucans reduce oxidative stress preventing & ameliorating cardiovascular diseases.”
Hypercholesterolemia – Cholesterol : Sima P, VAnnucci L, Vetvicka V, “B-glucans and cholesterol (Review),” Int J Mol Med, PMID 2939350, Jan 22, 2018. Quote: “Hypercholesterolemia is one of primary risk factors of cardiovascular disease, together with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes. ….Due to their [beta glucans] structure they are able to interact with innate immunity receptors; however they also act as dietary fibers in the digestive tract. . …Therefore, they [beta glucans] may be developed as a suitable therapeutic option to treat patients with dyslipidemia, as they are natural molecules that do not induce any significant side effects.” Note: Dyslipidemia is an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, or both.
Hypercholesterolemia: Chen J, Seviour R, “Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1–3), (1–6)-glucans” Mycol Res 111(Pt6):635-52, PMID 17590323, Jun 2007. Quote: “The literature suggests beta-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes.”
Hyperlipemia: Donzis B. A.: Method and Composition for Treating Hyperliperdemia. U.S. Patent 4,891,220; 1990.
Hypertension – Heart – Cardiovascular Disease: Wouk J, Dekker RFH, Queiroz, et al, “B-Glucans as a panacea for a healthy heart? Their roles in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases,” Int J Biol Macromol, 17:80141-8130(21)00366-4. PMID: 33609583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.087 , Feb 2021. Quote: “The B-glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, B-glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming B-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors. …[Summary in study]: β-Glucans decrease aggregation of atherosclerotic plaque, size and secretion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are reduced after intake of β-glucan. [and] β-Glucans reduce oxidative stress preventing & ameliorating cardiovascular diseases.”
Hypoglycemic – Heart – Cardiovascular Disease: Wouk J, Dekker RFH, Queiroz, et al, “B-Glucans as a panacea for a healthy heart? Their roles in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases,” Int J Biol Macromol, 17:80141-8130(21)00366-4. PMID: 33609583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.087 , Feb 2021. Quote: “The B-glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, B-glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming B-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors. …[Summary in study]: β-Glucans decrease aggregation of atherosclerotic plaque, size and secretion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are reduced after intake of β-glucan. [and] β-Glucans reduce oxidative stress preventing & ameliorating cardiovascular diseases.”
Information and statements regarding beta glucan, dietary supplements or other products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. No commercial products sold retail are included in this website.
The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial marketing entity and has no products of any kind. References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization.
Note on various Glucan forms: No commercial brand names of products are presented or endorsed on this research website. Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,derived beta glucan isolate with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is primarily uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not significantly reaggregate after the digestive process. “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is abbreviated as BCG.
“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms. Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley while not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations. Letters such as NSC, WGP and others are associated with brand names and are not specific forms of Beta glucan, although the individual products often contain Beta glucan.
The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in various research presented is from multiple sources in various amounts; none determined nor controlled by this website. Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. PubMed IDs (PMID) and/or digital object identifiers (DOI) are presented for most research to be able to find additional information on the internet. Human studies and Clinical trials are indexed in Bold Print. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan or endorsement of the research by various entities herein.
Information and statements regarding beta glucan, dietary supplements or other products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, mitigate, or prevent any disease. No commercial products sold retail are included in this website.