The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by this website.

Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies.

Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan, Beta-1,3(D)-glucan


For information related to any specific beta glucan commercial product, consult the manufacturer or source of the product in question.

An orally administered by capsule nutritional insoluble particulate immuno-potentiator



Classified as “Yeast extract (Bakers)” by the FDA; more specifically Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan or Beta-1,3(D)-glucan, which is derived from the yeast cell wall of bakers yeast scientifically designated as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Required specifications for “Yeast Extract (Bakers)” are contained in FDA Specifications 184.1983. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) classifies “Yeast extract (Bakers)” as “Generally Recognized as Safe” or GRAS. The GRAS classification is also set forth in the FDA’ “APPENDIX A FOOD ADDITIVES.”

Substances such as “Yeast extract (Bakers)” that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) are not food additives (legally), although they may be food ingredients. GRAS substances do not require pre-market approval by FDA. Under the FDA publication, “APPENDIX A FOOD ADDITIVES,” GRAS is defined as,

“Generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Substances in this category are by definition, under SEC. 201(s) of the FD&C Act, not food additives. Most GRAS substances have no quantitative restrictions as to use, although their use must conform to good manufacturing practices.”


U. S. Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition
Office of Food Additive Safety
July 2001

Partial List Of Microorganisms And Microbial-Derived Ingredients That Are Used In Foods


Food ingredients may be “food additives” that are approved by FDA for specific uses or GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances. A substance may be GRAS only if its general recognition of safety is based on the views of experts qualified to evaluate the safety of the substance. GRAS status may be based either on a history of safe use in food prior to 1958 or on scientific procedures, which require the same quantity and quality of evidence as would be required to obtain a food additive regulation. Because GRAS status may be either affirmed by FDA or determined independently by qualified experts, FDA’s regulations do not include all GRAS ingredients and the specific uses described in the GRAS regulations may not be comprehensive for the listed ingredients.

The following list, which derives partially from FDA’s regulations in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR), includes approved food additives, substances whose GRAS status has been affirmed by FDA and substances that FDA listed as GRAS based on a history of safe use in food. In addition, microorganisms and microbial-derived ingredients may be the subject of a GRAS notice. For further information, consult the summary listing of GRAS ingredients.

The list below includes some ingredients that are not listed in 21 CFR but have been the subject of opinion letters from FDA to individuals who asked whether FDA would object to the use of the ingredient in food on the basis of an independent GRAS determination.

The following is a compilation of GRAS affirmed substances listed in 21 CFR part 184 which are derived from microorganisms. This list also includes seaweed sources. Conditions for their use are prescribed in the referent regulations and are predicated on the use of nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strains of the respective organisms and on the use of current good manufacturing practice (184.1(b)). Please be aware that not all GRAS substances have been recorded as such and so this does not represent a complete list of all microbial derived GRAS food ingredients.

§184.1983 Bakers Yeast extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

G R A S: The USP Admission Evaluation of Beta Glucan after a safety review (p43-45) for 2015 stated that there being no safety concerns, by a unanimous vote, Beta Glucan was admitted for USP monograph development according to the USP Guideline.

G R A S: USP, Food Chemicals Codex, “Beta Glucan from Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae monograph).” IN: Third Supplement, FCC 7, Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia; 2010.

The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial marketing entity and has no products of any kind. References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: No commercial brand names of products are presented or endorsed on this research website. Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker’s yeast-derived beta glucan isolate with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is primarily uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not significantly reaggregate after the digestive process. “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is abbreviated as BCG.

“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms. Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley while not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations. Letters such as NSC, WGP and others are associated with brand names and are not specific forms of Beta glucan, although the individual products often contain Beta glucan.

The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in various research presented is from multiple sources in various amounts; none determined nor controlled by this website. Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. PubMed IDs are presented for most research. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan or endorsement of the research by various entities herein