The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by this website.

Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies.

Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall – Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

 

“R” through “Z”

“Radiation” through “Yeast Infections” (including “Radiation“, “Skin“, “Tuberculosis,” “Tumors,” “Viral Infections“, “Weight Control” and “Wound Healing“)

R

 

Rabies:  Tino MS, Carieri ML et al; “Imunomodulatory effect of glucan on the response to experimental antirabies vaccination.” Rev. Insti. Med. Troop. Sao Paulo 35:431-435. PMID: 8115811, 1993. Quote: “Glucan increased both resistance to infection and antibody titres and this effect was more evident when glucan was used at a dose of .5 mg, administered intraperitoneally before, during and after immunization and when the challenge virus was applied to the food-pad.”

Radiation – See also Chemotherapy and Cancer

 

Radiation Protection: Liu F, Wang Z, Liu J, LiW, “Radioprotective effect of orally administered beta-d-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Int J Biol Macromol, 115:572-578, PMID: 29684456, Apr 21 2018; Quote: “…oral pretreatment with…Saccharomyces cerevisiae-beta-d-glucan once daily for 14 consecutive days significantly increased the survival rate of mice from 6 Gy X-rays irradiation. …S cerevisiae-beta glucan protects bone marrow cells from radiation damage through scavenging bone marrow cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitigating bone marrow cell DNA damage and improving cell cycle progress, and thus mitigated myelosuppression induced by irradiation and stimulated hematopoiesis, ultimately increased the survival of radiated mice.”

Radiation Protection: Tabele F, et al: “Radioprotective Effect of Beta D-Glucan and Vitamin E on Gamma Irradiated Mouse,” J Clin Diagn Res,; PMID:28384957   PMCID: PMC5376888, Feb 11 2017. Quote: “It is shown that beta-D-glucan is an immunologic system booster with radioprotectory effects. Radioprotectors are chemical components that can alleviate biological damage produced by ionizing radiation.”

Radiation Therapy:  Sima P, Vetvicka V, et al, “Effects of glucan on bone marrow.” Ann Transl Med. ; 2(2)18. PMC 4202472  Feb 2014. Quote: “The extensive research studying various effects of glucans on bone marrow showed significant restoration of both lymphopenia and neutropenia. … glucan might be widely used as radioprotectant that could mitigate the biological effects of radiation exposure both in cases of radiation accidents or in medically used irradiation. …they [beta glucans] are inexpensive, generally free from side effects and capable of significant protection against bone marrow damage through restoration of bone marrow cell production. 

Radiation Therapy: Hofer M, Pospisil M, “Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by B-glucans: a review.” Molecules, 16(9): 7969-79. PubMed 21921869. Sep 15 2011. Quote: “B-glucans have been shown to support murine hematopoiesis suppressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy. They also enhance stem cell homing and engraftment.  Note: “Hematopoiesis” is the process of creating new blood cells in the body. All blood cells start off as hematopoietic stem cells, and then specialize or differentiate into myeloid cells including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, or eosinophils; or lymphoid cells including T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.

Radiation Therapy“The Biological activity of beta-glucans”; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: “…Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. …beta-1,3-glucans improve the body’s immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection and prevention].

Radiation and Radiotherapy:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis [normal cell transformation to cancer cells] due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens [chemical capable of causing cancer]. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Radiation – Radiotherapy: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Radiation (Irradiation): Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Radiation: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Radiation-Human Study:  Allendorf D.J., Knudsen G., Elliott T., et al, “Oral Whole Glucan Particles Beta Glucan Treatment Accelerates Myeloid Recovery and Survival after Radiation Exposure.” Center for Mind-Body Medicine Comprehensive Care Symposium, April 2003. Quote: Oral treatment with whole glucan particles may be a useful therapeutic intervention following radiation exposure to accelerate myeloid [bone marrow] recovery and increase survival after radiation exposure.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Vaudrain T, Correira H, Martin T, Reese D, “In vitro and in vivo hematopoietic activities of Betafectin PGG-glucan.”, Exp Hematol, 26(13):1247-54. Dec 1998.

Radiation: Patchen M.L; Mork AC, Helmke RJ, Martinez JR, Michalek MT, Zhang GH, “Effects of particulate and soluble(1,3)-beta glucans on Ca2+ influx in NR8383 alveolar macrophages,” Immunopharmacology, 40(1):77-89. Dept of Pediatrics, U of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Jul 1998. Quote: “Benefectin PGG-Glucan, a beta-(1,6) branched beta-(1,3) glucan purified from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to synergize the myeloid growth factors in vitro and to enhance hematopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery in myelosuppressed [bone marrow suppression] mice and primates. “

Radiation: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause …; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L. [V Chrm, Dept of Surg, U of Washington], et al, “Mast Cell Growth Factor (c-kit Ligand) in Combination with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleulin-3: in vivo Hemopoietic effects in Irradiated Ice compared to in vivo effects”, Biotherapy; vol. 7. pp. 13-26. 1994.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Brook I, Elliott TB, Jackson WE, “Adverse effects of pefloxacin in irradiated C3H/HeN mice: correction with glucan therapy.”, Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy, Dept. of Experimental Hematology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) , Bethesda, Maryland, Sept. 1993.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Gallin EK, Green SW, “Comparative effects of particulate and soluble glucan on macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 14(2):173-83; Dept of Physiology, AFRRI, Feb 1992.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990. Quote: “Likewise, although both glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone enhanced survival following an 8-Gy radiation exposure, greatest survival was observed in mice treated with both agents. These studies suggest that glucan, a macrophage activator, can synergize the G-CSF to further accelerate hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] regeneration  and increase survival following radiation-induced myelosuppression [bone marrow suppression].”

Radiation: Hemopoietic Regeneration: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Radiation: Patchen M.L.; “Radioprotective effect of oral administration of beta-1,3-glucan,” Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD Research Report, 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Postirradiation glucan administration enhances the radioprotective effects of WR-2721. “Radiat. Res. 117:59-69. 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Bowers GJ, Hirsch EF, Fink MP, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res, 47(2):183-8. Edward F. Hebert S of Medicine. Aug 1989.

Radiation: Patchen Ml, Chirigos MA, Brook I, “Use of glucan and other immunopharmacological agents in the prevention and treatment of acute radiation injuries,” Fundam Appl Toxicol, 11(4):573-4. AFRRI, Nov 1988.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987. Quote: “These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate [convey] its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery. …glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize [ingest] and sequester [store] glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan’s scavenging ability is also suggested.”

Radiation: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit [% of volume of packed red blood cells in a blood sample] values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; “Stimulated Hemopeiesis and Enhanced Survival Following Glucan Treatment in Sublethally and Lethally Irradiated Mice”. Int. J. Immunopharmac; 7: 923-932. 1985.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Wathen L; “Effects of pre- and post-irradiation glucan treatment on pluripotent stem cells, granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells and hemopoietic stromal cells.” Experientia. 40:1240-1244. 1984.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, MacVittie T.J., ”Dose-dependent responses of murine pluripotent stem cells and myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells following administration of immunomodulating agent glucan.” Immunopharmacology, 5(4):303-13, Apr 1983. Quote: “The hemopoietic effects produced by six different doses of a commercially available glucan preparation were investigated….bone marrow pluripotent stem cells (CFU-s) content increased…In the spleen, all aspects of hemopoiesis [formation of blood cells]increased after glucan administration.”

Radiation-Human Study: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983. Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation.”

Radiation Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”.  Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) -Phagocytosis: – Respiratory Burst :  Dutta O, Espinosa V, et al, “Dectin-1 Promotes Type I and III Interferon Expression to Support Optimal Antifungal Immunity in the Lung,” Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 10:321, doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.00321, PMID: 32733815, Jul 8 2020. Quote: “The downstream outcomes of B-glucan recognition by dectin-1 include the production of various cytokines, including TNF-a, IL6, and IL-22, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as expression of neutrophil chemoattractiants, MIP-1a and MIP-2. Phagocytosis of a microbe such as fungal conidia initiates a process known as a respiratory burst. Oxygen consumption by the phagocyte increases and the enzyme NADPH oxidase relocates to the phagosome and produces ROS [reactive oxygen species] to help contain and eliminate the invading threat. ROS [reactive oxygen species] can directly kill microbes by causing  oxidative damage to their DNA, cell membrane and wall components. …In aggregate, these finding indicate ROS [reactive oxygen species] are essential regulators of the host response to fungal infection both as direct effectors of fungal cell  inactivation and regulators of inflammation.”

Renal Failure: Esrefoglu M, et al, “Effects of beta-glucan on protection of young and aged rats from renal ischemia and reperfusion injury.” Bratisl Lek, Listy, 117(9): 530-538, PubMed 27677198, 2016. Quote:Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and results from an impairment of oxygen and nutrient delivery to, and waste product removal from, cells of the kidney. There is mismatch of local tissue oxygen supply and accumulation of waste products of metabolism. This imbalance causes injury of tubular epithelial cells; and, if severe, death occurs due to apoptosis and necrosis (cell death). ”… β-glucan is effective to protect kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage,…”

Renal Failure (Nephropathy-Contrast Induced): Koc E, Reis KA, Ebinc FA, Pasaoglu H, Demirtas C, Omeroglu S, Derici UB, Erten Y, Bali M Arinsov T, Sindel S; “Protective effect of beta-glucan on contrast induced-nephropathy [acute renal failure] and a comparison of beta-glucan with nebivolol and N-acetylcysteine in rats.” Dept of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey; Clin Exp Nephrol, Apr 26 2011. Quote: “…beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. …This study suggest that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy.”

Respiratory Tract Infection

 

Respiratory Tract Infection-Human Clinical Trial:   Mah E, Kaden VN, Kelley KM, Liska DP, “Soluble and Insoluble Yeast B-Glucan Differentially Affect Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Marathon Runners: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” J Med Food, doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0076, PMID: 31573387, Oct 1 2019. Quote: “…Total severity of URTI [Upper Respiratory Tract Infection] was significantly lower in the insoluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …Severity ratings for nasal discharge was significantly lower in both the insoluble and soluble yeast B-glucan groups compared to the placebo groups. …severity rating for sore throat was lower in the insoluble, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …The insoluble yeast B-glucan group, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group also reported fewer URTI symptomatic days compared to the placebo group.”

Respiratory – Double blind Human Clinical Study Dharsono T, Rudnicka K, Wilhelm M, Schoen C, “Effects of Yeast (1,3)-(1,6-Beta-Glucan on Severity of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs): A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects,” J Am Coll Nutr, Epub, PMID: 30198828, doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1478339. Sept 2018. Quote, “Subjects supplementing with yeast beta-glucan benefit by a reduced severity of physical URTI symptoms during the first week of an episode,…Furthermore, accompanying benefits in terms of blood pressure and mood were identified.  Altogether, yeast beta-glucan supports the immune function to defend against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract.  In the study of Mosikanon et al, the increase of IL-10 [by beta glucan] was associated with a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a. …beta glucan administration may train the monocytes to react more quickly and more efficiently by the robust production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that facilitate the blockage of the inflammatory process and the severity of the symptoms.”

Respiratory-Human Studies Review: Jesenak M, Urbancikova I, Banovcin P, “Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention,” Nutrients, 9(7) PMID 28726737, Jul 20, 2017. Quote:“Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. …Based on published studies, the application of B-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children …, adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived B-glucans), and in elite athletes… .”

Respiratory- Human Clinical Trial:  Fuller R, Moore MV, Lewith G, Stuart BL, Omiston RV, Fisk HL, NOakes PS, Calder PC. “Yeast-derived B-1,3/1,6 glucan, upper respiratory tract infection and innate immunity in older adults.” Nutrition, 39-40:30-35. doi: 10.1016/j.nut..03.003. PMID: 28606567. Jul-Aug 2017.  Quote: “Daily oral B-1,3/1,6 glucan may protect against URTIs [upper respiratory tract infections] and reduce the duration of URTI symptoms in older individuals once infected. …A refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide [beta glucan] food supplement may decrease the duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infection.” [Note: double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 100 adults 50-70 yrs]

Respiratory-Human Children Clinical Trial: Meng F, “Baker’s Yeast Beta-Glucan Decreases Episodes of Common Childhood Illness in 1 to 4 Year Old Children during Cold Season in China,” Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 6:518. 2016. Quote: “Infections, especially upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), are common in early childhood…The ability of bakers yeast beta glucan (BYBG) to reduce the number of episodes of common childhood illness in 1 to 4 year old children was evaluated in a 12 week randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study conducted in China. …85% of children in the placebo group experienced one or more episodes of infectious illness. By contrast, there were only 47% and 32% children in BYBG treatment groups experienced infectious illness, significantly less than placebo group. The placebo group had significantly higher URTI incidence per child and more days with URTI symptoms.”

Respiratory-Human Clinical Trials Review: Richter J, Svozil V, et al, “B-glucan affects mucosal immunity in children with chronic respiratory problems under physical stress: clinical trials.” Annals of Translational Med., Mar:3(4):52. doi: 10.3978. 2015. Quote:“Short term oral application of natural immunomodulator B-glucan stimulated physical endurance in children with respiratory problems and…helps their mucosal immunity.”

Respiratory-Clinical Human Trials Review: Richter J, Svozil V, et al, “Clinical trials of yeast derived B-(1,3) glucan in children – effects on innate immunity.” Ann Transl Med, ,  PMC 4202474, Feb 2014. Quote: “Short-term oral application of natural immunomodulator B-glucan significantly stimulated mucosal immunity of children with chronic respiratory problems.”

Respiratory-Human Trial Review:  Samuelson AB, Schrezenmeir j, Knutsen SH, “Effects of orally administered yeast-derived beta-glucans,” Mol Nutr Food Res, 58(1):183-93, PMID 24019098, Jan 2014. Quote: “Yeast-derived beta-glucans are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. …In human trials, orally administered yeast derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections … . In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and …enhanced antineoplastic [chemotherapy] agents. …Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury [tissue damage when blood supply returns to tissue after period of a lack of oxygen] have also been reported.

Respiratory-Human Study and Review: Talbott SM, Talbot JA, “Baker’s yeast beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed women.”  J Am Col Nutr, 31(4):295-300, PMID 23378458, Aug 2012. Quote: Several studies have shown a baker’s yeast beta-1,3/1,6-d-glucan, extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is effective in reducing the incidence of cold and flu symptoms. …These data show the daily dietary supplementation with a beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed subjects, and thus it may be a useful approach for maintaining immune protection against daily stressors.”

Respiratory-Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial:   Fuller R, Butt H, et al, “Influence of Yeast-Derived [Beta] 1,3/1,6 Glucopolysaccharide on Circulating Cytokines and Chemokines With Respect to Upper Respiratory Tract Infections,” Nutrition 28(6):665-9. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012. PMID: 22465901, Jun 2012. Quote: “[Beta Glucan] tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI [upper respiratory tract infection] symptoms. The ability to ‘breathe easily’ was significantly improved in the [Beta Glucan] group; …” Note: ‘Beta Glucan’ is substituted for the product name which states on the bottle, ‘Beta Glucan from Baker’s Yeast’.

Respiratory- Human Study: Talbott SM, Talbot JA, “Effect of Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Mood State in Marathon Athletes,” J Sports Sci Med, 8(4):509-515, PMID 24149590, Dec 1, 2009. Quote, ” …Beta-Glucan supplementation reduces post-exercise upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTI) in marathon runners.  Maintenance of post-exercise immune function is associated with improved mood state, including reduced fatigue and increased vigor in athletes.”

Respiratory-Human Study: Harger-Domitrovich SG et al, “Effects of an Immunomodulating Supplement on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Wildland Fighters,” Med * Sci in Sports & Exer, 40:S353, 2008. Quote: “A beta glucan antioxidant supplement  [whole particle glucan] may help to suppress symptoms of URTI [upper respiratory tract infection] and increase perception of overall health in WLFF  [Wildland Fire Fighters] during 14 days of arduous wildfire management.”

Respiratory: Jorgensen J.B., Robertsen B.; “Yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) macrophages,” Dev Comp Immunol 19: 43-57. 1995.*

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: “Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment.”

Rheumatoid Arthritis – See Auto-Immune Disorders also.

Rhinitis: See Allergies also.  Allergic Rhinitis also known as hay fever.

Rhinoconjunctivitis-Human Clinical Trial: Yamada J, et al: “Alleviation of seasonal allergic symptoms with superfine beta-1-glucan: A randomized study.” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zaeshi, 113(11):1082-7; PMID 19994586; Nov 2009. Quote: “Allergic response is induced by the Th2-type immune response. …The intracellular…antigen-presenting cells (APCS) reportedly regulates the Th1/Th 2 balance via distinctive cytokine production of APCs. …The double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study shows that the ingestion of superfine dispersed beta-1,3-glucan alleviates ongoing symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis.” Note: Rhinoconjunctivitis: Rhinitis is characterized by one or several symptoms including nasal congestion, runny nose, post-nasal drip, sneezing, red eyes (conjunctivitis) and itching of the nose or eyes. Allergic rhinitis is also known as “hay fever.” Th1 and Th2 refer to Type 1 and Type 2 helper T-cells.

Rhinitis – Allergies-Human Clinical Trial: Kirmaz C, Bayrak P; “Effects of glucan treatment on the Th1/Th2 [Th=Helper T cells] balance in patients with allergic rhinitis [hay fever]: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.” Eur Cytokine Netw, (2)):128-34. PMID 15941684. Jun 16 2005.. Quote: “Th2-originated IL-4 and IL-5 levels responsible for the allergic inflammatory response in the microenvironment of patients with allergic rhinitis, are decreased with Glucan, while levels of Th1-originated IL-12 are increased. …eosinophils, which are important effector cells of the inflammatory response, are decreased… .” 

S

Safety

 

Safety Plus:  Castro FM, Calder PC, Roche HM, “B-1,3/1,6-glucans and Immunity: State of the Art and Future Directions,” Mol Nutr Food Res, e1901071, doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201901071, PMID: 32223047, Mar 29 2020. Quote: “The innate immune system responds in a rapid and non-specific manner against immunologic threats [primarily pathogens and toxins]; inflammation is a part of this response.  This is followed by a slower but targeted and specific response termed adaptive or acquired immune response. There is emerging evidence that dietary components, including yeast-derived glucans, can aid host defense against pathogens by modulating inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of neutrophils and macrophages. …Overall, no adverse events were detected, and no major safety concerns were presented in response to any of the selected intervention studies”

Safety:  Del Corno M, Gessanni S, Conti L, “Shaping the Innate Immune Response by Dietary Glucans: Any Role in the Control of Cancer?” Cancers (Basel), 12(1), pil: E155, doi: 10.3390/cancers12010155, PMID: 31936360, Jan 8 2020. Quote: “These compounds [b-glucans] can be taken orally as food supplements or as part of daily diets, and are safe to use, nonimmunogenic and well tolerated. A main feature of B-glucans is their capacity to function as biological response modifiers, exerting regulatory effects on inflammation and shaping the effector functions of different innate and adaptive immunity cell populations. The potential to interfere with processes involved in the development or control of cancer makes B-glucans interesting candidates as adjuvants in antitumor therapies as well as in cancer prevention strategies.”

Safety:  Xiaojie L, Cheung PCK, “Application of natural B-glucans as biocompatible functional nanomaterials,” Food Science and Human Wellness, Vol 8, Issue 4, Pp 315-319, doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2019.11.005, Dec 2019. Quote: “B-glucans have been known as functional foods since they are capable of boosting both the innate and adaptive immune systems, thus modulating the immunological responses against cancer, bacteria, viruses and inflammation. …B-glucans from yeast also have a capacity to stimulate immune responses to suppress the chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. …B-glucans are natural bio-materials having the potential to form stable nano-hybrids with excellent bio-pharmaceutical properties to be orally administrated for therapeutic cancer treatment. …Furthermore, no obvious harmful side effect of these nano-hybrids was evident by histological analysis of major organs in treated mice.”

Safety:  Zou S, Duan BA, Xu X, “Inhibition of tumor growth by B-glucans through promoting CD4 T cell immunomodulation and neutrophil-killing in mice.” Carbohydr Polym, 1:213:370-381. PMID 30879681, June 2019. Quote: “B-glucans…exhibited S-180 tumor-suppressing ability with good safety. B-glucans not only targeted to lymphoid organs and increased CD4 T cells number but also enhanced CD4 T cells and neutrophils populations in tumors. It was proposed that B-glucans promoted CD4 T cell immunomodulation and neutrophils infiltration into tumors, leading to tumor growth inhibition. These findings reveal that B-glucans can be used as an effective agent for cancer immunotherapy.” Notes: CD4 are white immune helper T cells.  An S-180 tumor is a sarcoma cancer tumor cell.

Safety-Clinical Human Trial: Engel-Riedel W, Lowe J, Patchen ML, et al, “A randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of BTH1677 in combination with bevacizumab, carboplatin, and apaclitaxel in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer,” J Immunother Cancer, 6(1):16, PMID: 29486797, Feb 27 2018, Quote: “BTH1677, a beta-glucan pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule [PAMP} drives an anti-cancer immune response in combination with oncology antibody therapies. …Improvements in tumor assessments and survival were observed…in patients with advanced NSCLC [non-small cell lung cancer].”

Safety:Beta Glucan-Human Clinical Trial Study:  Yeon JL, Doo-Jin P, et al, “Agrobacterium sp.-derived B-1,3-glucan enhances natural killer cell activity in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study,” Nutrition Research and Practice, The Korean Nutrition Society, plSSN 1976-1457, Jan 24 2017. Quote: “The results showed that supplementation with bacterial B-1,3-glucan significantly increased NK cell activity without causing any adverse effects. Additionally, the beneficial effect of B-1,3-glucan on NK cell activity was greater in participants experiencing severe stress.”

Safety-Human Clinical Trial-Phase I Study Halstenson CE, Patchen ML, et al,” Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 studies evaluating TTH1677, a 3-1, 6 beta glucan pathogen associated molecular pattern, in healthy volunteer subjects,” Invest New Drugs, 34(2):201-15, PMID: 26865390, Apr 2016: Quote: “BTH1677 is a beta glucan pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) currently being investigated as a novel cancer therapy….No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. …BTH1677 was well tolerated after single dose up to 6 mg/kg and after 7 daily doses up to 4 mg/kg.”

Safety-Human Study: Zhu X, Sun X, et al, “Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 25(8) 714-23, Aug 2015. Quote: “…beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration.  However, there were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. No adverse effects were reported among the eligible trials.”

Safety: Yeast Infections-Allergies:  Vaclav Vevicka, “Beta Glucan – Natures Secret,” 3rd Edition, Chap 21-Negative Effects, pg 141, ISBN:9780984144525, 2015. Quote: “A common question about possible problems with glucans causing allergy or promoting yeast infection can be easily answered. Good quality glucan is highly purified and contains only very limited amount of proteins, so it does not trigger allergic reaction or any immune reaction against glucan molecules.”

Safety: foot & leg ulcers-Human Clinical Phase II Study:  Zykova SN, Balandina KA, et al, “Macrophage stimulating agent soluble yeast B-1/3/1,6-glucan as a topical treatment of diabetic foot and leg ulcers: A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled phase II study,”  J Diabetes Investig, 5(4):392-399, PMID: 25411598, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00288392, July 2014. Quote: “Local treatment of diabetic lower extremity ulcers with B-1,3/1,6-polyglucose shows good safety results. This B-glucan preparation shows promising potential as a treatment of accelerating cutaneous healing.”

Safety-Human Clinical Trials Review: Steir H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, “Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan,” Nutr J; 13;38, PMID 24774968, Apr 28, 2014. Quote: “…several human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans have been performed.  The results confirm the previous findings of in vivo studies. The results of all studies taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect. ,,,Further, numerous studies reported other health benefits of B-glucans, including hepatoprotective, wound healing, weight loss, antidiabetic and cholesterol lowering functions.”

Safety: European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). “Scientific opinion on the safety of ‘yeast beta-glucans’ as a novel food ingredient.” EFSA J, 9(5):2137, 2011. www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2137.htm . Quote: “Data provided on (sub)acute and sub-chronic toxicity, absorption, and limited human data do not give reason for concern. On the basis of the nature of ‘yeast beta glucans,’ the significant history of use of its source, the provided intake estimate [600 mg/d] and the supplementary data from human and animal studies, Panel concludes that ‘yeast beta-glucans’ is safe at the proposed conditions of use.”

Safety: European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). “Scientific opinion on the safety of ‘Chitin-glucan’ as a Novel Food ingredient”, EFSA J, Vol 8:1687. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1687, Jul 30 2010. Quote: “The Novel Food ingredient called ‘KiOnutrime-CG’ has a content of more than 90% chitin-glucan,…The compositional data and the manufacturing process do not give rise to concerns. The ingredient is intended to be marketed as a food supplement to increase the daily intake of fibre.  …At the highest doses …about 6.6 g/kg body weight, no adverse effects were observed. This dose is approximately 80-fold higher than the maximum intended level of intake for humans on a g/kg bw [body weight], no adverse effects were observed. Panel concludes that Novel Food KiOnutrime-CG is safe as a food ingredient at the proposed conditions of use and the proposed intake levels.

Safety / G R A S: USP, Food Chemicals Codex, “Beta Glucan from Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae monograph).” IN: Third Supplement, FCC 7, Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia; 2010.

Safety: Thompson IJ, Oyston PC, Williamson DE, “Potential of the beta-glucans to enhance innate resistance to biological agents,” Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 8(3):339-52, PMID: 20192687, Mar 2010. Quote: “The beta-glucans…have a long track record of safe use. Due to their immunomodulatory properties, purified beta-glucans have been used clinically as part of a combination therapy for a variety of cancers and their potential anti-infective properties have received attention.”

Safety-Human Double Blind Placebo Trial – Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting:  Asrsaether E, Rydningen M, et al; “Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting.” Dept of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ Hosp of N Norway, Norway. Sand Cardiovasc J. 40(5):298-304; PubMed 17012141. Jul 2009. Quote: “The aims of the present study were to examine the safety of pretreatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to investigate whether beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment could suppress inflammatory response and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury following CABG.  ……Twenty one patients scheduled for CABG were assigned to oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucan 700 mg (Group 1) or 1 400 mg (Group 2) five consecutive days before surgery and were compared with a control group (Group 3). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and on the first, third and fifth postoperative day for analysis of acute-phase reactants, hematology, cytokines and myocardial enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment is safe in patients undergoing CABG [Coronary artery bypass grafting] and may protect against ischemia reperfusion injury following CABG.”

Safety-Human Phase I Trial:– Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM; “The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells.” Dept of Pediatrics and Adolescent Med. U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; J Hematol Oncol 2:25; Pub med 19515245; June 10, 2009: Quote: .In a phase I study for the assessment of safety and tolerability of a soluble form oral b-glucan, B-glucans of different doses (100 mg/day, 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day) were given respectively for 4 consecutive days. No drug-related adverse events were observed. …”

Safety-Chemotherapy-Phase I/II Human Trial: Weitberg, A, “A phase I/II trial of beta-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan in treatment of patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy,” Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 27:40; PMCID: 18803849; PMC 2570358, Sept 19, 2008: Quote: “B-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan, …has been shown to stimulate the immune system, enhance hematopoiesis, amplify killing of opsonized tumor cells and increase neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. … We conclude that B-(1,3)/1,6) D-glucan can be safely administered to patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy and that this adjunctive therapy may have beneficial effects on the blood counts in these patients”  NOTE: hematopoiesis is the formation of blood or blood cells in the living body.

Safety-No Toxicity: Babicek K, Cechova I, Simon RR, Harwood M, Cox DJ. “Toxicological assessment of particulate yeast (1/3/1,6)-beta-D-glucan in rats.” Food Chem Toxicol, 45(9): 1719-30, PMID: 17493735, doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.03.013. Sep 2007. Quote: “No negative effects on animal weights or food consumption attributable to [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] were evident at any dose. In addition, no mortality, clinical pathology, functional/behavioral, microscopic, or gross observations indicating toxicity were observed. …In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects were observed after subchronic oral administration of 2, 33.3, or 100 mg/kg body weight/day of …[Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] in Fisher-344 rats, and therefore, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, was determined.”  Note: the commercial product name has been replaced with “[beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] as the described assessment ingredient” in keeping with website policy on being a non-commercial site.

Safety/No Toxicity-Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  …The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Safety – Beta Glucan Safety and Tolerance Human Study:   Lehne G, Haneberg G, et al, “Oral administration of a new soluble branched B-1-3-D-glucan is well tolerated and can lead to increased salivary concentrations of immunoglobulin A in healthy volunteers,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 143(1), 65-69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02962.x, Jan 1 2006. Quote: ” In the present study oral administration of SBG [soluble branched yeast AB-1,3-D-glucan] has been investigated primarily for assessment of safety and tolerability in an early phase human pharmacological study (phase 1). …Groups of six individuals received SBG 100 mg/day, 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day, respectively, for 4 consecutive days.  No drug-related adverse event, including abnormalities in vital signs, was observed. …In saliva, the immunoglobulin A concentration increased significantly for the highest SBG dose employed.  SBG was thus safe and well tolerated by healthy volunteers, when given orally once daily for 4 consecutive days at doses up to 400 mg.”

Safety – FDA: Federal Drug Administration, “Appendix A Food Additives,” Yeast extract (Bakers) – FL/ADJ, GRAS, See Specs 184.1983. Washington DC. http://www.fda.gov   1997.

Safety – FDA Classification: Carrow, D.J. MD; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Beta 1,3-glucan is a safe and potent nutritional supplement with a profound systemic effect that can be described as nonspecific immune stimulation combined with its free radical scavenging activity. Remember, beta 1,3-glucan is generally recognized as safe (category GRAS, according to FDA) and has no known toxicity or side effects.”

Safety: Surgery – Human Clinical Trial Study:    Babineau TJ, Marcello P, Swails W, Kenler A, Bistrian B, Forse RA, “Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high risk surgical patients,” Ann Surg, 220(5):601-9 PMID: 7979607, Nov 1994. Quote: “A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was performed in 34 high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal or thoracic surgery.  …There were no adverse drug experiences associated with PGG-glucan infusion.  Patients who received PGG-glucan had significantly fewer infectious complications, …decreased intravenous antibiotic requirement … and shorter intensive care unit length of stay.  CONCLUSIONS: PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in the further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery.” Note: “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan).

Safety:  Feletti F, Valserra M, Contos S, et al, “Chronic Toxicity Study on a New Glucan Extracted from Candida Albicans in Rats”, Arzneimittelforschung. 42(11):1363-7, PMID: 1492853, Nov 1992. Quote: Fifty-two week oral toxicity of a new glucan …extracted from Candida albicans ATCC 20955 was investigated in rats. The glucan was orally administered in dose levels up to 200 mg/kg/d and was well tolerated. No deviation from normality was observed in mortality, physical appearance and general behavior of the treated animals. Hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis and autopsy finding were within normal ranges in every group of rats treated.”

Safety: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Pre-clinical Safety Evaluation of Soluble Glucan”, Int. J. ImmunophamacVol. 10, No4: 405-414.  Dept of Phys, Tulane U Sch of Med, New Orleans, LA.  1988. Quote: “Soluble glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose biological response modifier, is effective in the therapy of experimental neoplasia, infectious diseases and immune suppression. …“These data indicate that the systemic administration of soluble glucan, over a wide dose range, does not induce mortality or significant toxicity, an important consideration in preparing soluble glucan for parenteral administration to human populations.”

Sarcoma – See Cancer also

 

Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Sarcoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Sciatic Nerve, Brain , Oxidative Stress: Harun Alp, Sefer Varol, et al, “Protective Effects of Beta Glucan and Gliclazide on Brain Tissue and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozosin,” Experimental Diabetes Res, Vol 2012, Article ID 23032, Quote: “Recent studies have reported that beta-glucans could reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemis, and hypertension. …It was found that B-glucan is an antioxidant … . Therefore, beta-glucans have great potential for the treatment of diabetes and associated neurological diseases including diabetic neuropathy and encephalopathy.  Thus, beta glucan can lead new approaches for the prevention of diabetic neurologic complications and vascular risk factors by reducing oxidative damage of this molecule. … 

In addition, it has been suggested that beta-glucans may be used to prevent or treat excessive microglial activation during chronic inflammatory conditions. Gliclazide …is a second generation sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent…gliclazide may contribute to the control of physiopathological mechanisms underlying both the process of aging and type 2 diabetes by reducing oxidant stress and DNA damage,… .In diabetic experimental models it has been reported that gliclazide potentially protects the vasculature through improvements in plasma lipids and platelet function. … study results suggested that beta glucan and gliclazide may be considered to reduce oxidative stress in diabetic brain and sciatic nerve and may be used as a protective agent against diabetic damage of brain and sciatic nerve.”

Sepsis

 

Sepsis – Pulmonary – Pneumonia-induced: Masterson CH, Murphy EJ, et al, “Purified B-glucans from the Shiitake mushroom ameliorates antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pulmonary sepsis,” Lett Appl Microbiol, PMID: 32706908, DOI: 10.1111/lam.12258, Jul 24 2020. Quote: “Bacterial  infection remains the main cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and is a leading cause of death and disability in critically ill patients. Here we report on the use of purified B-glucan (Lentinan) extracts …that can reduce infection by a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of K. Pneumonniae in a rodent pneumonia model, likely through immunomodulation. …In conclusion administration of Lentinan [B-glucan] to treat sepsis-induced lung injury appears safe and effective and may exert its effects in an immunomodulatory manner.” [Ameliorate: to make better, improve. Lentinan is a B-1,3 beta glucan with B-1-6 branching and a molecular weight of 500,000 Da.]

Sepsis-Trauma: , McBride MA, Owen AM, Stothers CL, et al; “The Metabolic Basis of Immune Dysfunction Following Sepsis and Trauma,” Front Immunol;11:1043. PMID: 3254753, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01043, May 29 2020. Quote: “Serious infection …frequently precipitates sepsis, a complex disease spectrum that includes systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction. As such, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICU). … Stimulation of innate immune cells  such as [macrophages, neutrophils et al] …[by]  B-glucan reprograms their metabolism, which supports …antimicrobial capacity to combat invading infections. … Glucans are potent immunomodulators that augment host resistance against gram negative [Escherichia coli], gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), fungal [Candida albicans] and parasitic (Leishmania braziliensis) infections. Glucan binds Dectin-1, which triggers downstream …signaling to augment phagocytosis, ROS production, microbial killing and cytokine production. Further, glucan has been shown to decrease infectious complications in high risk surgical patients.”

Sepsis – Oxidative Stress-Human Clinical Trials Review: Prauchner CA, “Oxidative stress in sepsis: Pathophysiological implications justifying antioxidant co-therapy;” Burns, pii:S0305-4179(16)30400-4. PMID 28034666; Dec 26, 2016. Quote: Sepsis is one of the main causes of death among critically ill patients. Sepsis pathogenesis includes infection by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, or both; exacerbated inflammatory response; hypotension, with potential to cause vasodilatory shock; and lesser delivery of oxygen to tissues due to impairment of oxygen utilization by cells. Antioxidants could inhibit the over expression of iNOS [nitric oxide synthase] in sepsis. In line with this, several antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, polyphenols, melatonin, β-glucan, N-acetylcysteine, mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants (MitoQ, MitoE, and peptides associated with dimethyltyrosine), selenium salts, and organoselenium compounds were effective in ameliorating oxidative stress in animal models of sepsis and in a number of clinical trials with septic patients.”

Sepsis-Pneumoniae: Vural K, et al, Investigation of the protective effects of beta-D-glucan against invasive encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis in splenectomized rats,” Mikrobiyol Bul, Jul;49(3): 314-26, PMID 26313274-PubMed in Progress. 2015. Quote“The most common species which are responsible for sepsis are encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitis. …b-D-glucan [BDG] … shows immunomodulatory activity, by enhancing the resistance of the host against microbial agents, and promotes phagocytic and proliferative activities of reticuloendothelial system [phagocytic cells including macrophages and monocytes involved in the immune system]. …BDG, ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups had statistically significant decrease in the amount of bacteria in all tissues when compared to the sepsis group (p<0.05). … The data of our study suggests that, BDG [B-D-glucan] alone, an immunomodulatory agent, alone and in combination with ceftriaxone can reverse the systemic inflammatory reaction in Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and thereby can reduce multiple organ failure.”

Sepsis: Sener G, Toklu H, et al; “Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis,” Int Immunopharmacol:1387-96 Epub 2005/Aug 2005. Quote“Sepsis leads to various organ damage and dysfunction. One of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals.Elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels in septic rats [was] significantly reduced to control levels in beta-glucan treated rats. Since beta-glucan administration reversed these oxidant responses, it seems likely that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-induced oxidative organ injury.”

Sepsis Associated Lung Damage – SepsisBabayigit HKucuk CSozuer EYazici CKose KAkgun H.; Protective effect of beta-glucan on lung injury after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.” Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey; Intensive Care Med. (6):865-70; Jun 31, 2005. Quote: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis beta-glucan treatment partially protected against secondary lung injury, decreased lung hemorrhages, and lung neutrophilia. These results suggest that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-associated lung damage.”

Sepsis-Intraabdominal: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intra-abdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan),” J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998. Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”

Sepsis – Pneumonia- Human Study: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. …Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5% … . The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Sepsis pneumoccoccal-Human Study: Browder W, Williams D, Di Luzio N, et al, “Protective effect of nonspecific immunostimulation in postsplenectomy sepsis,” J Surg Res, :35(6):474-9, PMID 6656237.Dec 1983. Quote: “This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyglucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis. ,,, Glucan significantly increased survival in the splenectomy group (75%) compared to controls (27%). … Nonspecific immunostimulation [by a beta-1,3-polyglucose] appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.” Note: a splenectomy surgical procedure partially or completely removes the spleen.

Septic Shock: Williams D.L. ,et al; “The role of complement in glucan-induced protection against septic shock.” Circ. Shock. 25:53-60. 1988

Serum Glucose Control: Pola P, “Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms,” U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. Quote:“.beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.”

Skin

 

Skin Atopic Dermatitus-Human Study – Jesenak M, Urbancek S, et al, “B-Glucan-based cream in supportive treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis,” J Dermatolog Treat. 1-10, .PMID:26654776 December 2015. Quote: “Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases with serious impact on quality of life. B-Glucans are natural substances with potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Topical B-glucan application resulted in the significant improvement of both objective and subjective symptoms of Atopic dermatitis (AD). On the application side, significant decline in the number of days with Atopic dermatitis exacerbation and severity was observed.”

Skin – Human Study:  Campos PM, de Melo MO, de Camargo FB, “Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Formulations on Human Skin,” Springer Live -Polysaccharides, Sept 26 2014. Quote: “…B-glucan has been used as a substance that enhances the skin’s natural ability to heal and protect itself against infection.”

Skin –  Du B, Bian Z, Xu B, “Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: a review.” Phytother Res, 28(2): 159-66, PMID 23494974, Feb 28 2014. Quote: “B-Glucans are natural cell wall polysaccharides found in yeast, fungi… . Natural B-glucans possess many health promotion effects on human health, such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-infection, lowering blood cholesterol and immune-modulating properties. This review focuses on antioxidant activity, anti-wrinkle activity, anti-violet light, wound healing, and moisturizing effect and skin permeation absorption of B-glucan.”

Skin Atopic Dermatitus –  Sugiyama A, Hata S, et al, “Oral administration of paramylon, a beta-1,3-D glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z inhibits development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.” J Vet Med Sci, 72(6):755-763, Feb 16 2010. Quote: “These results suggest that paramylon [beta-1,3-D-glucan] inhibits the development of AD-like [atopic dermatitis] skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing both the T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell responses. Our results indicate that paramylon [beta-1,3-D-glucan] treatment could provide an effective alternative therapy for the management of AD [atopic dermatitis].”

Skin –  Gaspar LR, Camargo FB Jr, et al, “Evaluation of dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and vitamins,” Food Chem Toxicol, 48(11):3493-500, PMID 18804142, Sep 2, 2008. Quote: “Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics since it can act in oxidative stress and improve skin conditions.”

Skin Rejuvenation :  Akramlene D, Konddrotas A, et al, “Effects of B-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas), 43(8), Kaunas U of Med, Lithuania, Aug 6 2007. Quote: “It has been common knowledge in the scientific community that B-glucan is the most known powerful immune stimulant and a very powerful antagonist to both benign and malignant tumors; it lowers cholesterol and triglyceride level, normalizes blood sugar level, heals and rejuvenates the skin and has various other benefits.”

Skin – Wrinkles-Human Study – Pillai R, Redmond M, Roeding J, “Anti-Wrinkle Therapy: Significant New Findings in the Non-Invasive Cosmetic Treatment of Skin Wrinkes with Beta-Glucan,” DOI: 10.111/j.1463-1318.2005.00268 3.x, 2005. Quote: ” Scientific reports indicate beta-glucan is a film-forming moisturizer…A clinical study of 27 subjects was performed to evaluate the effects of beta-glucan on facial fine-lines and wrinkles.  After 8 weeks of treatment, digital image analysis …indicated a significant reduction of wrinkle depth and height, and overall roughness.”

Skin Regeneration: Vacher, A M; “Cosmetic composition which includes at least one polysaccharide derived from bacteria of hydrothermal origin,” U.S. Patent Application 20020187167, December 12, 2002. Quote“It was shown, for example, that a beta-glucan which was extracted from the wall of a yeast, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabled skin to regenerate.”

Skin-Human Study: Ber L., “The Skin Connection;” Natures Impact, Dec 1997. Quote: “The effect of a cosmetic regimen containing beta-1,3-glucan on the signs of aging in the skin was evaluated in 150 women, ages 35 to 60. A 27 percent improvement in skin hydration was observed after eight weeks of using the regimen twice a day. A measurable improvement in lines and wrinkles at the end of the study reached 47 percent, firmness and elasticity increased by 60 percent and skin color improved by 26 percent.”

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; “beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997.

Skin Damage: Donzis B.A.; Photoprotective composition containing yeast extract; U.S. Patent 5397773; 1995.

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; Method of revitalizing skin by applying topically water insoluble glucan; U.S. Patent 5223491; 1993.

Skin: Murphy G, Messadi D, Fonterko E, Hancock W; “Phenotypic Transformation of Macrophages to Langerhans Cells in the skin;” Am. J. Pathology; Vol 123:401-406. 1986.

Skin: Katz S.; “The skin as an Immunologic Organ,” National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD – J. Am. Academy of Dermatology; Vol 13:3; 530-536; 1985.

SleepColds-Human Double Blind Clinical Studies: Stier H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, “Immne-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan,” Nutr J 13:38, . PMCID: PMC 4012169 2014. Quote: “In contrast, a lower susceptibility to cold episodes reflects an improved defense against infections and, hence, a properly functioning immune system. Therefore, common cold is widely used as a proper model to investigate potential immune-modulating properties of natural substances, including β-glucans. …Two independent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that daily oral administration of the proprietary insoluble (1,3)-(1,6)-β-glucan, derived from brewers’ yeast, reduced the incidence of common cold episodes during the cold season in otherwise healthy subjects….the authors reported a milder progression of severe common cold episodes in subjects supplemented with β-glucans. Also, sleeping difficulties, regarded as a side effect of a cold infection, were improved by the supplementation of β-glucan”

Sleep / Colds-Human Study: Auinger A, Riede L, Bothe G, Busch R, Gruenwald J, “Yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-glucan helps to maintain the body’s defense against pathogens: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric study in healthy subjects.” Eur J Nutr, 52(8):1913-8, PMID: 23340963; PMCID: PMC3832763; Dec 2013. Quote: “in the per protocol population, supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25% compared to placebo. Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episodes. .. . The present study demonstrated that yeast beta-glucan preparation increased the body’s potential to defend against invading pathogens.”

Small Particle Size Beta Glucan: See “Micronized” and “Nanoparticles”

 

Sore Throat – Respiratory Tract Infection-Human Clinical Trial:   Mah E, Kaden VN, Kelley KM, Liska DP, “Soluble and Insoluble Yeast B-Glucan Differentially Affect Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Marathon Runners: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” J Med Food, doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0076, PMID: 31573387, Oct 1 2019. Quote: “…Total severity of URTI [Upper Respiratory Tract Infection] was significantly lower in the insoluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …Severity ratings for nasal discharge was significantly lower in both the insoluble and soluble yeast B-glucan groups compared to the placebo groups. …severity rating for sore throat was lower in the insoluble, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …The insoluble yeast B-glucan group, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group also reported fewer URTI symptomatic days compared to the placebo group.”

Spinal Cord Injury: Kayali H, et al, The antioxidant effect of beta-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.” Dept Neurosurgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; Neurosurg Rev. Apr 30 2005; Quote: According to our results, beta-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation [free radical damage] in spinal cord injury.”

Splenectomy Sepsis:  Vural K, et al, Investigation of the protective effects of beta-D-glucan against invasive encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis in splenectomized rats,” Mikrobiyol Bul, Jul;49(3): 314-26, .PMID 26313274-PubMed in Progress. 2015. Quote“The most common species which are responsible for sepsis are encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitis. …b-D-glucan [BDG] … shows immunomodulatory activity, by enhancing the resistance of the host against microbial agents, and promotes phagocytic and proliferative activities of reticuloendothelial system[phagocytic cells including macrophages and monocytes involved in the immune system]. …BDG,ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups had statistically significant decrease in the amount of bacteria in all tissues when compared to the sepsis group (p<0.05). … The data of our study suggests that, BDG [B-D-glucan] alone, an immunomodulatory agent, alone and in combination with ceftriaxone can reverse the systemic inflammatory reaction in Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and thereby can reduce multiple organ failure.”

Splenectomy Sepsis-Human Trial: Browder W, Williams D, Di Luzio N, et al, “Protective effect of nonspecific immunostimulation in postsplenectomy sepsis,” J Surg Res, Dec:35(6):474-9,  PMID 6656237.1983, 1983. Quote: “This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyglucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis. …… Glucan significantly increased survival in the splenectomy group (75%) compared to controls (27%). … Nonspecific immunostimulation [by a beta-1,3-polyglucose] appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.”  Note: Splenectomy is a surgical procedure to partially or completely remove your spleen.

Sports Health

 

Sports Health – Upper Respiratory Tract Infection-Human Clinical Trial:   Mah E, Kaden VN, Kelley KM, Liska DP, “Soluble and Insoluble Yeast B-Glucan Differentially Affect Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Marathon Runners: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” J Med Food, doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0076, PMID: 31573387, Oct 1 2019. Quote: “…Total severity of URTI [Upper Respiratory Tract Infection] was significantly lower in the insoluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …Severity ratings for nasal discharge was significantly lower in both the insoluble and soluble yeast B-glucan groups compared to the placebo groups. …severity rating for sore throat was lower in the insoluble, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …The insoluble yeast B-glucan group, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group also reported fewer URTI symptomatic days compared to the placebo group.”

Sports Health -Exercise – Strenuous-Human Study: McFarlin BK, Venable AS, “Oral Supplementation with Baker’s Yeast Beta Glucan is Associated with Altered Monocytes, T Cells and Cytokines following a Bout of Strenuous Exercise;” Front Physiol, 8:786, PMID 29104540, PMCID: PMC5654840, Oct 20, 2017. Quote: “Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. …oral BYBG [Baker’s Yeast Beta Glucan] supplementation modulates the expected exercise response for individuals of average fitness. This may result in a decrease in susceptibility to opportunistic infections after strenuous exercise.”

Sports Health Respiratory-Exercise-Human Study: McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, “Baker’s yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary Iga [immunoglobulin] and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise,” J Diet Suppl  10(3):171-83 2013. PMID: 23927572. Quote: “BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days post-marathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA  [immunoglobulin]. In summary, the present study demonstrates that BG may reduce URTI symptomatic days and improve mucosal immunity.”

Sports Health -Exercise – Strenuous-Human Study:  Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, McFarlin BK, et al, “Baker’s yeast B-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implication for infection risk?”, ABr J Nutr, 109(3):478-86, PMID: 22575076, Feb 14 2013. Quote: “Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation  with …baker’s yeast B-glucan could minimize post-exercise immunosuppression. …It appears that 10 d[ays] of supplementation with BG [baker’s yeast B-glucan] increased the potential of blood leukocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4,IL-5 and IFN-y. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG [baker’s yeast B-glucan] may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.”

Sports Health Respiratory-Human Study: Talbott SM, Talbot JA, “Effect of Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Mood State in Marathon Athletes,” J Sports Sci Med, 8(4):509-515, PMID 24149590, Dec 1, 2009. Quote, “Beta-Glucan supplementation reduces post-exercise upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTI) in marathon runners.  Maintenance of post-exercise immune function is associated with improved mood state, including reduced fatigue and increased vigor in athletes.”

Sports Athletes – Intensive Physical: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: Professional and amateur athletes as well as people who work outdoors intensively. People under physical or emotional stress”

Staphylococcus aureus – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

 

Staphylococcus aureus & Sepsis-Trauma: , McBride MA, Owen AM, Stothers CL, et al; “The Metabolic Basis of Immune Dysfunction Following Sepsis and Trauma,” Front Immunol;11:1043. PMID: 3254753, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01043, May 29 2020. Quote: “Serious infection …frequently precipitates sepsis, a complex disease spectrum that includes systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction. As such, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICU). … Stimulation of innate immune cells  such as [macrophages, neutrophils et al] …[by]  B-glucan reprograms their metabolism, which supports …antimicrobial capacity to combat invading infections. … Glucans are potent immunomodulators that augment host resistance against gram negative [Escherichia coli], gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), fungal [Candida albicans] and parasitic infections. Further, glucan has been shown to decrease infectious complications in high risk surgical patients.”

Staphylococcus aureus – Trained Immunity:  Rusek P, Wala M, et al, “Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity,” Int J Mol Sci, 19(2):456, doi: 10.3390/ijms19020456, PMID 29401667, Feb 3 2018. Quote: “… For example, during training of human monocytes with B-glucan (a component of fungal cell wall) from Candida albicans (a human opportunistic pathogen), the immunity is induced not only against fungi, but also against bacteria, viruses and even parasites. Furthermore, it was observed that training of human monocytes induced by chitin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae …leads to enhanced capacity to eliminate microbes like Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), or Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) compared to non-trained human monocytes.”

Staphylococcus aureus :  Akramlene D, Konddrotas A, et al, “Effects of B-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas), 43(8), Kaunas U of Med, Lithuania, Aug 6 2007. Quote: “It has been common knowledge in the scientific community that B-glucan is the most known powerful immune stimulant and a very powerful antagonist to both benign and malignant tumors; it lowers cholesterol and triglyceride level, normalizes blood sugar level, heals and rejuvenates the skin and has various other benefits. …B-Glucan itself can elicit broad anti-infective effects. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Listeria monocytogenes, Leishmania donovani, Influenza virus are microorganisms, against which a protective effect of B-glucan has been established.”

Staphyloccoccus,  Candida albicans and Infectious Challenge:  Rice PJ, Brown GD, Gordon S, Williams DL, et al, “Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.” East Tennessee State University. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Jun 23, 2005. Quote: ”Oral glucan administration also increased survival in mice challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans …[and] increase[s] IL-12 expression and induce[s] protection against infectious challenge.”

Staphylococcus aureus: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA. 1992* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Staphylococcus aureus: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote: “Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.  These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections.”

Stem Cell Transplantation: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182.Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Stress:

 

Stress: Sabioni RE, Zanuzzo FS, Gimbo RY, Urbinati EC, “B-Glucan enhances respiratory activity of leukocytes suppressed by stress and modulates blood glucose levels in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus),” Fish Physiol Biochem, doi: 10.1007/s10695-019-00739-x, PMID: 31840217, Dec 16 2019. Quote: “In general, B-glucan avoided the reduction of the activity of leukocytes after stress and the bacterial challenge and increased the baseline glucose levels. Our findings confirm the immunomodulatory action of glucan and add evidence showing that glucan can have a role in stress response.”

Stress-Human Study:  S Richter J, Stiborova K, et al, “Anti-Inflammatory Effects of B-Glucan in Cancer Related Fatigue,” Nutr Health Sci 2(3):304. doi: 10.15744/2393-9060.2.304, Aug 25 2015. Quote: “In cancer patients, fatigue is not only a manifestation of treatment, but also reflects biological effects of the tumor. …Glucan not only suppressed inflammatory manifestations, but also improved patient’s conditions. … In addition, glucan has been found to ameliorate both experimentally- or physically-induced stress.”

Stress-Human Study: Talbott SM, Talbot JA, “Baker’s yeast beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed women.”  J Am Col Nutr, 31(4):295-300, PMID 23378458, Aug 2012. Quote: Several studies have shown a baker’s yeast beta-1,3/1,6-d-glucan, extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is effective in reducing the incidence of cold and flu symptoms. ...These data show the daily dietary supplementation with a beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed subjects, and thus it may be a useful approach for maintaining immune protection against daily stressors.”

Stress: Vetvicka V; “Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug,” World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: “The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established.”

Stress: Physical or Emotional: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: Professional and amateur athletes as well as people who work outdoors intensively. People under physical or emotional stress”

Stroke: Saluk-Jusszczak J, et al, “(1-3)-B-D-Glucan inhibits a dual mechanism of peroxynitrite stroke,” Int J Biol Macromol, 48(3):488-94. PMID: 21255603, Apr 1 2011. Quote: “The obtained results demonstrate that (1-3)-B-D-glucan from S. cerevisiae protects plasma components against toxic effects…due to antioxidative and anti nitrative activities.  Therefore, (1-3)-B-D-glucan supplementation during inflammatory may be beneficial not only in regard for its ability to stimulate the immune system, but also by antioxidative properties.”

Structure: 

 

Structure: Kollar R, Kapteyn J, et al; “Architecture of the yeast cell wall. Beta 1,6 glucan interconnects manoprotein, beta 1,3 glucan and chitin,” J Biol Chem, 272:28,17762-75. Jul 1997.

Structure: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan Preparation,”  U.S. Patent 5622939. Issued April 22, 1997.*

Structure: Donzis B.A.; Solubilized yeast glucan; U.S. Patent 5519009; 1996.

Structure: Kapteyn J.C., Montijn R.C., et al; “Retention of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall proteins through a phosphodiester-linked beta-1,3/beta-1,6-glucan heteropolymer,” Glycobiology 6: 337-345.  Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, U of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.1996.*

Structure: Seljelid R, Eskeland T, “The biology of macrophages: I. General principles and properties,” Eur J Haematol 51(5):267-275. Nov 1993.*

Structure: Jones EW, Broach JR and Pringle JR; “The Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;” Gene Expression; Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. 1992.

Structure: Mortimer RK, Contopoulou CR, King JS, “Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,”  Edition 11. Yeast 8:817-902. 1992.

Structure: Williams D.L. ,et al, “Development, Physicochemical Characterization and Preclinical Efficacy Evaluation of a Water Soluble Glucan Sulfate Derived from Saccharomyces cerrevisiae,” Immunopharmacology; 22:139-156. 1991.

Structure – Beta Glucan and Immune System: Czop J.K., Gurish M.F., Kadish J.L., Production and Isolation of Rabbit Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Directed Against the Human Monocyte Receptor for Yeast B-glucans. Journal of Immunology; 145:995-1001. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1990. Quote (p1): “Beta-Glucans with 1,3 and/or 1,6 linkages are the major structural components of yeasts and fungi and are pharmacologic agents in animals…The cell wall glucans of S. cerevisiae consist of two structurally distinct Beta-glucans: major components comprised of consecutively, 1,3-linked glucopyranosyl residues with small numbers of 1,6-linked branches, and minor components with consecutive 1,6-linkages and 1,3-branches.”

Structure: Spiros J., Rha C., Sinskey AJ; “Glucan compositions and process for preparation thereof,” U.S. Patent 4810646; Issued Mar 7, 1989.

Structure – Macrophage: Goldman R., “Characteristics of the beta-glucan receptor of murine macrophages.” Exp. Cell Res. 174:481-490. 1988.

Structure: Seljelid R, “The rediscovery of the macrophage,” APMIS Suppl 2:215-223. 1988.*

Structure: Kopecka M.; “Electron  microscopic study of purified polysaccharide components glucans and mannan of the cell walls in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” J Basic Microbiol 25: 161-174. 1985.

Structure – Skin: Thiers B, Maize J, Spicer S, Cantor A; “The effect of Aging and Chronic Sun Exposure on Human Langerhans Cell Populations;” J. Investigative Dermatology; Vol 82:223-226. 1984.

Structure: Deslanders, et al., “Triple-Helical Structure (1,3)-.beta.-D-Glucans”. Macromolecules 13: 1466-1471.  1980.

Structure – Skin: Stingl G., Katz S, Clement L, Green I., Shevach E.; “Immunologic Functions of Ia-Bearing Epidermal Langerhans Cells;” J. Immunology, Vol 121 n5: 2005-2013; 1978.

Structure: Manners, D.J., et al., “The Structure of a .beta.-(1.fwdarw.3)-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls,” Biochem J.; 135: 19-30. 1973.

Surgery – Human Study:

 

Surgery – Sepsis-Trauma: , McBride MA, Owen AM, Stothers CL, et al; “The Metabolic Basis of Immune Dysfunction Following Sepsis and Trauma,” Front Immunol;11:1043. PMID: 3254753, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01043, May 29 2020. Quote: “Serious infection …frequently precipitates sepsis, a complex disease spectrum that includes systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction. As such, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICU). … Stimulation of innate immune cells  such as [macrophages, neutrophils et al] …[by]  B-glucan reprograms their metabolism, which supports …antimicrobial capacity to combat invading infections. … Glucans are potent immunomodulators that augment host resistance against gram negative [Escherichia coli], gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), fungal [Candida albicans] and parasitic infections. Further, glucan has been shown to decrease infectious complications in high risk surgical patients.”

Surgery – Human Phase I/II Trial:    Babineau TJ, Marcello P, Swails W, Kenler A, Bistrian B, Forse RA, “Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high risk surgical patients,” Ann Surg, 220(5):601-9 PMID: 7979607, Nov 1994. Quote: “A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was performed in 34 high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal or thoracic surgery.  …There were no adverse drug experiences associated with PGG-glucan infusion.  Patients who received PGG-glucan had significantly fewer infectious complications, …decreased intravenous antibiotic requirement … and shorter intensive care unit length of stay.  CONCLUSIONS: PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in the further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery.” Note: PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan).

Synbiotics (Prebiotics+Probiotics w/ Beta glucan having prebiotic related properties): Asemi Z, Khorrarni-Rad, et al; “Effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic status of diabetic patients: A double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial,” Clinical Nutrition,  PMID 23786900, Jun 7, 2013.  See also “Prebiotics”

T

 

T-cell Adoptive Treatment – Tumors –  de Graff P, Govers C, Wichers HJ, Debets R, “Consumption of B-glucans to spice up T cell treatment of tumors: a review,” Expert Opin Biol Ther, 18(10), PMID 30221551, Oct 18 2018. Quote: “Adoptive  T-cell treatments of solid cancers have evolved into a robust therapy with objective response rates surpassing those of standardized treatments. Unfortunately, only a limited fraction of patients show a durable response, which is …due to a T cell-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Here we argue that naturally occurring B-glucans can enable reversion of such T cell suppression by engaging innate immune cells and enhancing numbers and function of lymphocyte effectors. …we list effects toward well-being and immune functions in healthy subjects as well as cancer patients treated with orally administered B-glucans…When tested in mouse cancer models, B-glucans result in better control of tumor growth and shift the TME [tumor microenvironment] toward a T-cell-sensitive environment. …We advocate that intake of B-glucans provides an accessible and immune-potentiating adjuvant when combined with adoptive T-cell treatments of cancer.”

Thermal Injury: Toklu HZ, Sener G, “Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats,” Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: “Thermal injury may lead to systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries.”

THP-1 Cell Line (see also “Macrophage”):  Auwerx J, “The human leukemia cell line, THP-1: a multifaceted model for the study of monocyte-macrophage differentiation,” Experientia, 47(1):22-31, PMID: 1999239, DOI: 10.1007/BF02041244, Jan 15 1991. Quote: “THP-1 is a human monocytic leukemia cell line. …THP_1 cells differentiate into macrophage-like cells which mimic native monocyte-derived macrophages in several respects. Because of these characteristics, the THP-1 cell line provides a valuable model for studying the mechanisms involved in macrophage differentiation, and for exploring the regulation of macrophage-specific genes as they relate to physiological functions displayed by these cells.” Note: THP-1 cells are frequently used in research studies as almost equivalent cells to act as a multifaceted model for human macrophages.

Tissue Damage – Oxidative Burn Injuries: Toklu HZ, Sener G, “Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats,” Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: “The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries.”

Tissue Damage: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment.”

 

Toxicity / Safety: See also “Safety”

 

Toxicity-Safety – Babicek K, Cechova I, Simon RR, Harwood M, Cox DJ. “Toxicological assessment of particulate yeast (1/3/1,6)-beta-D-glucan in rats.” Food Chem Toxicol, 45(9): 1719-30, PMID: 17493735, doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.03.013. Sep 2007. Quote: “No negative effects on animal weights or food consumption attributable to [beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] were evident at any dose. In addition, no mortality, clinical pathology, functional/behavioral, microscopic, or gross observations indicating toxicity were observed. …In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects were observed after subchronic oral administration of 2, 33.3, or 100 mg/kg body weight/day of …[Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] in Fisher-344 rats, and therefore, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, was determined.”  Note: the commercial product name has been replaced with “[beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] as the described assessment ingredient” in keeping with website policy on being a non-commercial site.

Toxicity – Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: ” …The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Toxicity-Safety:  Feletti F, Valserra M, Contos S, et al, “Chronic Toxicity Study on a New Glucan Extracted from Candida Albicans in Rats”, Arzneimittelforschung. 42(11):1363-7, PMID: 1492853, Nov 1992. Quote: Fifty-two week oral toxicity of a new glucan …extracted from Candida albicans ATCC 20955 was investigated in rats. The glucan was orally administered in dose levels up to 200 mg/kg/d and was well tolerate. No deviation from normality was observed in mortality, physical appearance and general behavior of the treated animals. Hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis and autopsy finding were within normal ranges in every group of rats treated.”

Trained Immunity – Tuberculosis:  Moorlag SJCFM, Khan N, Novakovimyelopoic B, “B-Glucan Induces Protective Trained Immunity Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Key Role for IL-1,” Cell Rep. 19;31(7):107634. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107634; PMID: 32433977, May 19 2020. Quote: “B-glucan is a potent inducer of epigenetic and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process called “trained immunity,” resulting in an enhanced host response against secondary infections. …Mice treated with B-glucan are significantly protected against pulmonary Mtb [Mycobacterium tuberculosis] infection, which is associated with the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow and increased myelopoiesis. The administration of B-glucan may be used as a novel strategy in the treatment of mycobacterial infections and possibly as an adjuvant to improve anti-tuberculosis vaccines.  Note: “myelopoiesis”  refers to production of bone marrow and produced blood cell

Trained Immunity:     Rusek P, Wala M, et al, “Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity”, Int J Mol Sci, 19(2):456, PMID 29401667, ‘DOI 10.3390/ijms19020456, Feb 3 2018. Quote: “It [trained innate immunity] is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells) after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents. Many infectious stimuli, including bacterial or fungal cells and their components (LPS, B-glucan, chitin) as well as viruses or even parasites are considered potent inducers of innate immune memory. Epigenetic cell reprogramming occurring at the heart of the phenomenon may provide a useful basis for designing novel prophylactic [preventative] and therapeutic strategies to prevent and protect against multiple diseases.”  Note: “epigenetics” refers to the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself.  Excellent Study on “Trained Immunity”

Trained Immunity:  Garcia-Valanen, Guzman-Genuino RM, et al, “Evaluation of Trained Immunity by B-1,3(D)-Glucan on Murine Monocytes in Vitro and Duration of Response in Vivo,” Immunol Cell Biol, 95(7) 601-610, PMID 28228641, Aug 2017. Quote: “The B-1,3(d)-glucan present in the cell wall of Candida albicans induces epigenetic changes in human monocytes resulting in primed macrophages exhibiting increased cytokine responsiveness to reinfection.  This phenomenon is referred to as trained immunity or innate immune memory.”

Transplantation – stem cells: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan;Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005.Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following [bone marrow] injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals. Researchers discovered beta-glucan enhances the proliferation of stem cells, promoting white blood cell recovery in bone marrow injury and repair.

 

Trauma:

 

Trauma: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatiized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis.”

Trauma: Felippe J., Silva M., Maciel F.M., et al., Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator beta(1-3)glucan 1-3 polyglucose (glucan).  Surg. Gynecol Obstet., 177: 3833-388. 1993.

Trauma-Human Study: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulator Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993. Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Trauma-Human Study: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.  Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation. “

Trypanosoma Cruizi: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar.  11:403-410. 1989.

 

Tuberculosis:

 

Tuberculosis:  Moorlag SJCFM, Khan N, Novakovimyelopoic B, “B-Glucan Induces Protective Trained Immunity Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Key Role for IL-1,” Cell Rep. 19;31(7):107634. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107634; PMID: 32433977, May 19 2020. Quote: “B-glucan is a potent inducer of epigenetic and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process called “trained immunity,” resulting in an enhanced host response against secondary infections. …Mice treated with B-glucan are significantly protected against pulmonary Mtab [Mycobacterium tuberculosis] infection, which is associated with the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow and increased myelopoiesis. The administration of B-glucan may be used as a novel strategy in the treatment of mycobacterial infections and possibly as an adjuvant to improve anti-tuberculosis vaccines.  Note: “myelopoiesis”  refers to production of bone marrow and produced blood cells.

Tuberculosis: Hetland G, Sandven P, “B-1,3-Glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophage cultures,” Wylie Online Library, FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, Vol 33, Issue 1, pgs 41-45, March 2002. Quote: “pMG [particulate beta glucan], but not sMG [soluble beta glucan], given with challenge had an even stronger inhibitory effect, which was enhanced after serum opsonization of the particles. The results indicate that β-glucans inhibit growth of M. tuberculosis in host cells in vitro, probably due to cellular stimulation and/or competitive inhibition of uptake of bacteria via CR3 (CD11b/18).”

Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium Bovis – Hetland G, et al. “Protective effect of beta-glucan against mycobacterium bovis, BCG infection in BALB/c mice.” Scand J Immunol, Quote:…antibody cross-reactivity was demonstrated between M. [Mycobacterium] tuberculosis cell wall and beta-glucan. The results suggest that beta-glucan has a protective effect against M. bovis, BCG infection in susceptible mice.” [Note: Mycobacterium bovis, is a slow-aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis known as Bovine TB, which can also jump the species barrier from cattle and cause tuberculosis in humans and other mammals.]

 

Tumors:

 

Tumor necrosis factorSteadman R., Petersen M.M., et al; “Differential augmentation by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha of neutrophil responses to particulate zymosan and glucan,” J. Immunol 144: 2712-2718. 1990.

Tumorigenesis: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis [formation or production of tumors].”

Tumors – Cancer – Lung:   Fatemeh SI, Fatemeh P, et al, “The effect of Candida cell wall beta-glucan on treatment-resistant LL/2 [Lewis Lung carcinoma] cancer cell line: in vitro evaluation,” Mol Biol Rep, 47(5):3653-3661, doi: 10.1007/s1 1033-020-05459-7, PMID: 3323263, May 2020. Quote:  “Since the extracted beta-glucan showed an inhibitory effect on the expression of Oct4 and SOX2 genes involved in LL/2 [Lewis lung carcinoma cell line cells] metastasis, therefore, beta-glucan can be considered as an anti-tumor agent because of its anti-metastatic properties… .”

Tumors:  Xio Z, Zhou W, Zhang Y, “Fungal Polysaccharides,” Adv Pharmacol, 87:277-299. doi:10.1016/bs.apha.2019.08.003, PMID: 32089236, 2020. Quote: “Most of the antitumor polysaccharides belong to conserved B-glucans, with a linear B-(1-3)-glucan backbone and attached B-(1-6) branch. …B-glucans act on several immune receptors including Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6, then trigger both innate and adaptive response and enhance opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis. Note: “Opsonic” is an effect produced by an opsonin which is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is the ingestion or engulfing of microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles.

Tumors – Cancer:   Geller A, Shrestha R, et al, “Yeast-Derived B-Glucan in Cancer: Novel Uses of a Traditional Therapeutic,” Int J Mol Sci, 20(15), PMID: 31344853, Jul 24 2019. Quote: “Therapeutics that render the TME [tumor microenvironment] immune-reactive have a vast potential for establishing effective cancer interventions. One such intervention is B-glucan, a natural compound with immune-stimulatory and immunomodulatory potential that has long been considered an important anti-cancer therapeutic. B-glucan has the ability to modulate the TME [tumor microenvironment] both by bridging the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system  and by modulating the phenotype of immune-suppressive cells to be immune-stimulatory.

…B-glucan is involved in a concept called trained immunity, where innate cells take on memory phenotypes. Additionally, the hollow structure of particulate B-glucan has recently been harnessed to utilize particulate B-glucan as a delivery vesicle. …B-glucan may play an essential role in futures strategies to prevent and inhibit tumor growth.”

Tumors: Su F, Song Q, et al, “A B-1,3/1,6-glucan from Durvillaea Antarctica inhibits tumor progression in vivo as an immune stimulator,” Carbohyddr Polym, 222-114993, PMID: 31320068, Jun 12, 2019. Quote: “BG136 [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] increases macrophage phagocytosis, enhances cytokine/chemokine secretion and modulates the systemic and intratumoral immune cell composition. Collectively, these data suggest that BG136 might act as an immune stimulator to exert antitumor effects in vivo.”

Tumors –  Zou S, Duan B, Xu X, “Inhibition of tumor growth by B-glucans through promoting CD4+ T cell immunomodulation and neutrophil-killing in mice.” Carbohydr Polym, 213:370-381, PMID: 30879681, Jun 1 2019. Quote: “It was proposed that B-glucans promoted CD4+ T cell immunomodulation and neutrophils infiltration into tumors, leading to tumor growth inhibition. These findings reveal that B-glucans can be used as an effective agent for cancer immunotherapy.”

Tumors – Beta Glucan:  Ciecierska A, Drywien ME, et al, “Nutraceutical functions of beta-glucans in human nutrition,” Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig, [Translation: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, Responsiveness to the hospital patient needs in Poland], 70(4):315-324, (ISSN: 0035-7715), 2019. Quote: “Beta-glucan[s]…are attributed a number of beneficial health properties, including the prevention and treatment of certain digestive diseases and supporting the immune system. …Beta-glucan reduces cholesterol and glucose concentrations in the blood, which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. …beta-glucan also exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing the risk of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Immunostimulatory and antitumor effects have also been reported. …Beta-glucan belongs to the group of prebiotics which stimulate the growth and activity of the desired natural intestinal microbiota, while inhibiting the growth of pathogens. …Such a number of health benefits resulting from the properties of beta-glucan may play a key role in improving health benefits resulting from the properties of beta-glucan and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.

Tumors-Human Study –  Cancer: de Graff P, Govers C, Wichers HJ, Debets R, “Consumption of B-glucans to spice up T cell treatment of tumors: a review,” Expert Opin Biol Ther, 18(10), PMID 30221551, Oct 18 2018. Quote: “Adoptive  T-cell treatments of solid cancers have evolved into a robust therapy with objective response rates surpassing those of standardized treatments. Unfortunately, only a limited fraction of patients show a durable response, which is …due to a T cell-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Here we argue that naturally occurring B-glucans can enable reversion of such T cell suppression by engaging innate immune cells and enhancing numbers and function of lymphocyte effectors. …we list effects toward well-being and immune functions in healthy subjects as well as cancer patients treated with orally administered B-glucans…When tested in mouse cancer models, B-glucans result in better control of tumor growth and shift the TME [tumor microenvironment] toward a T-cell-sensitive environment. …We advocate that intake of B-glucans provides an accessible and immune-potentiating adjuvant when combined with adoptive T-cell treatments of cancer.”

Tumors: Camilli G, Tabouret G, Quintin J, “The Complexity of Fungal B-Glucan in Health and Disease: Effects on the mononuclear Phagocyte System,” Front Immunol, 16:9:673, PMID 29755450, Apr 16, 2018, Quote: Study of this molecule [B-glucan] has been motivated by its importance as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern upon fungal infection as well as by its promising clinical utility as biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.  Its immune effect is attributed to the ability to bind to different receptors expressed on the cell surface of phagocytic and cytotoxic innate immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells.  …B-glucans exhibit antitumor and antimicrobial activities by modulating the biologic responses of mononuclear phagocytes [macrophages et al].”  Note: A Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) is a distinct evolutionarily conserved structure on pathogens detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), with PRRS relied upon by the innate immune system in the defense against invading microbial pathogens.

Tumors-Human Clinical Trial: Engel-Riedel W, Lowe J, Patchen ML, et al, “A randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of BTH1677 in combination with bevacizumab, carboplatin, and apaclitaxel in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer,” J Immunother Cancer, 6(1):16, PMID: 29486797, Feb 27 2018, Quote: “BTH1677, a beta-glucan pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule [PAMP} drives an anti-cancer immune response in combination with oncology antibody therapies. …Improvements in tumor assessments and survival were observed…in patients with advanced NSCLC [non-small cell lung cancer].”

Tumors: Mo L, Chen Y, Guo S, et al, “Anti-tumor effects of (1-3)-B-d-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in S180 tumor-bearing mice,” Int J Bil Macromol, pii:SO141-8130(16)30887-X, PMID 17838421; Nov 9, 2016. Quote:“The volume and weight of S180 [cancer] tumors decreased dramatically following treatment with (1-3)-B-d-glucan, and…was furthermore shown to increase the tumor inhibition rate. …these results indicate that the anti-tumor effects exerted by (1-3)-B-d-glucan may be attributed to …immunostimulating properties and apoptosis-inducing features.”  Notes:  apoptosis:cell death.  S180 Tumor: murine cancer cell line

Tumors: Ning Y, et al, “B-glucan restores tumor-educated dendritic cell maturation to enhance antitumor immune responses.”  Int J Cancer, 1:138(11): 2713-23, PMID: 26773960. June 1, 2016.  Quote: Treatment with β-glucan drastically decreased the levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells but increased the infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and DCs in tumor masses, thus elicited Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and led to a delay in tumor progression. These findings reveal that β-glucan can inhibit the regulatory function of TEDCs, therefore revealing a novel function for β-glucan in immunotherapy.”

Tumors: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology,; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. 2015.  Quote: The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganismsMicroparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ….Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.

Tumors: Albeituni SH, Yan J, “The effects of B-glucans on dendritic cells and implications for cancer therapy,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(5):689-98, PMID 23092290, Jun 2013. Quote: “Modern biomedical research has identified B-glucans as biological response modifiers (BRM) with anti-tumor properties that elicit potent immune responses through their recognition by a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and neutrophils. …  B-Glucan binding to specific receptors in DCs [dendritic cells] and macrophages triggers their activation and maturation, increases their antigen-presentation ability and enhances the production of proinflammatory cytokines that stimulate the polarization of TH1 [helper T cells] or TH17 responses and induces the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. …Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of B-glucan-induced signaling in immune cells is essential for the design of new therapeutic strategies against cancer.” Note: Th17 T-helper cells are generally thought to be pro-inflammatory and play an important role in host defense against infection, by recruiting neutrophils and macrophages to infected tissues.

Tumors: Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, etc, “B-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.”  Eur J Immunonl, ;43(5):1220-30. doi. May 2013. Quote: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and play a major role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, which hampers effective immuno-therapeutic approaches. B-Glucans have been reported to function as potent immune-modulators to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to their antitumor property. …thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Tumors:   Hyung K, Hong J, Youngsoo K, etc. “Stimulatory Effect of B-glucans on Immune Cells,” Immune Netw, 11(4): 191-195 PMC 3202617, Aug 31, 2011. Quote: “B-Glucans, generally called biological response modifiers, are now recognized as anti-tumor and anti-infective drugs. …B-Glucan has been shown to protect against infection by bacteria, viruses and pathogenic microorganisms. B-Glucan also prevents cancer promotion and progression and has anti-tumor effects with monoclonal antibodies and cancer chemotherapeutics.”

Tumors: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; “Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate.” Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23 2011: Quote: “B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. …Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages….Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro.  Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Tumors: Li B, Cai Y, Qi C, et al, “Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer,” Clin Cancer Res, 16(21):5153-64, PMID 208554461, Nov 1, 2010. Quote: “…IFN-y [Interferon gamma] production of tumor infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. …These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it [yeast derived B-glucan] can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy.”  Note: Interferon gamma triggers a cellular response to viral and microbial infections.

Tumors: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; “Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans,” Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem,   PMID 21609131 Jun 7 2011. Quote: “The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing.”

Tumors: LiB, Cai Y, Qi C, etc., “Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer.”  Clin Cancer Res, 16(21):5153-64. Nov 1 2010.  Quote:“IFN-y [interferon] production of tumor-infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. …These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy.”

Tumors: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; “Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy.” Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy…Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. …It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients.”

Tumors: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  Beta-Glucans also show anti-carcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As [an] immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Tumors – Immuotherapy:  Size:Zhang M, Kim Julian, et al, “Optimizing Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Immunotherapy: B-Glucan-Based Nanoparticles,”  Front Immunol, 9:341, PMC5834761, Feb 26 2018. Quote: “This article reviews the development of B-glucan and B-glucan-based nanoparticles as immune modulators of tumor microenvironment (TME). …we discuss the mechanisms of conditioning tumor microenvironment (TME) using B-glucan and B-glucan-based nanoparticles, and how this strategy enables future design of optimal combination cancer immunotherapies. …A particulate B-glucans derived from yeast mediates antitumor immune responses by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and stimulating innate immune effector cell activation.” [ Note: 1 micron = 1,000 nanos ]

Tumors:   Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, et al, “Effects of B-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas), 43(8), Kaunas U of Med, Lithuania, Aug 6 2007. Quote: “It has been common knowledge in the scientific community that B-glucan is the most known powerful immune stimulant and a very powerful antagonist to both benign and malignant tumors; it lowers cholesterol and triglyceride level, normalizes blood sugar level, heals and rejuvenates the skin and has various other benefits.  “

Tumors:   Baran J, Allendorf DJ, Hong F, Ross GD, “Oral beta-glucan adjuvant therapy converts nonprotective Th2 response to protective Th1 Cell-mediated immune response in mammary tumor-bearing mice,” Eolia Histochem Cytobil 45(2): 107-14, PMID 17597024, 2007. Quote: “Conversely, T cells from mice undergoing beta-glucan-enhanced therapy showed increased production of the Th1 cytokine IFN gamma. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response after [beta-glucan-enhanced] therapy was possibly mediated by intestinal mucosal macrophages releasing IL-12.”

Tumors: Immunotherapy – Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. Beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Tumors: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: “Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment.”

Tumors: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Tumors – Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, “Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer.” Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005. Quote: “Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients.”

Tumors: Hong F, Yan J,”Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models.”  J Immunol 173(2):797-806, PMID 15240666. Jul 15 2004.  Quote: “Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. …Antitumor mAb [monoclonal antibodies] bind to tumors and activate complement, coating tumors with iC3b. Intravenously administered yeast beta-1,3;1,6-glucan functions as an adjuvant for antitumor mAb by priming the inactivated C3b (iC3b complement) receptors (CR3; CD11b/CD18) of circulating granulocytes [primarily neutrophils] , enabling CR3 to trigger cytotoxicity [emitted chemical killing] of iC3b-coated tumors. “

Tumors: Ross G, Hong F, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Ostroff G; “Mechanism of Tumor Regression Stimulated by Yeast Beta Glucan Dietary Supplement.” Abstract. April 9, 2003. Quote“The mechanism of B-glucan enhancement of tumor mAb immunotherapy involves the activation of the innate immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) via the lectin binding site on CR3 to target and kill Ab opsonized tumor cells.  Oral yeast B-glucan is orally absorbed and transported by macrophages into immune tissues and tumors resulting in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and soluble B-glucan leading to an enhanced innate immune cell attack against tumor cells.”

Tumors: Pola P, “Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms,” U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. Quote:“.beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.”

Tumors: Cheung NK, Modak S, Vickers A, Knuckles B; “Orally administered beta-glucans enhance anti-tumor effects of monoclonal antibodies,” Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy ;51(10):557-64. Dec 2002. Quote: “We studied readily available (1–>3)-beta- D-glucan using the immune deficient xenograft tumor models, and examined the relationship of its anti-tumor effect …. Given the favorable efficacy and toxicity profile of oral beta- D-glucan treatment, the role of natural products that contain beta-glucan in cancer treatment as an enhancer of the effect of mAb therapy deserves further study.”

Tumors: Hunter KW, Gault R, Jordan FM; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote: “MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Tumors: Brown G D, Gordon S; “Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans.” Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system – stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example – by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them.”

Tumors:    Yan J, et al, “Beta-glucan, a ‘specific’ biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (D11b/CD18),” J Immunol, 163(6):3045-52, PMID: 10477568, Sep 15 1999. Quote: “In vitro studies have shown that beta-glucans bind to a lectin domain with complement receptor type 3 (CR3..that functions as an adhesion molecule). Therapy of mice with glucan …exhibiting high affinity for CR3 caused a 57-90% reduction in tumor weight.” 

Tumors – Pulminary Metastases: Penna C, Dean P, Nelson H (Dept of Surgery-Mayo Clinic); “Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody;” Int J Cancer, 65.3,377-82. Jan 1996. Quote: “In the established tumor model, beta glucan + Bispecific antibody (BsAb) reduced the incidence of s.c. tumors as compared with control…It also prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice compared with control. We conclude that T cells can be activated in vivo by beta glucan…”

Tumors :  Bohn JA, BMiller JN, “(1-3)-b-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: a review of structure-functional activity relationships,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol 28, Issue 1, 3-14, 1995. Quote: “(1-3)-B-D-Glucans that have B-D-glucopyranosyl units attached by (1-6) linkages as single unit branches enhance the immune system systemically. This enhancement results in antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, anticoagulatory and wound healing activities. …immunopotentiation effected by binding of a (1-3)-B-glucan molecule or particle probably includes activation of cytotoxic macrophages, helper T cells, and NK cells, promotion of T cell differentiation, and activation of the alternative complement pathway.”

Tumors: Seljelid R, Busund LT, “The biology of macrophages: II. Inflammation and tumors,” Eur J Haematol 52(1): 1-12.   Dept of Exp Pathol, Inst of Med Biol, U of Tromso, Norway. Jan 1994.*

Tumors: Yoshizawa, et al, “Effects of Natural Human Interleukin-6 on Thrombopoiesis and Tumor Progression in Tumor-Bearing Mice”, Cancer Letters; vol. 79, pp. 83-89. 1994.

Tumors – Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body. 

Tumors: Seljelid R, “Tumour regression after treatment with aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose is initiated by circulatory failure,” Scand J Immunol 29(2): 181-192; Feb 1989.*

Tumors: Artursson, et al, “Macrophage stimulation with some structurally related polysaccharides.” Scand J Immunol, Mar 1987. Quote: “microparticles, they induced the release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) from the macrophages....Microparticulate 1.3-beta-glucan (curdlan) induced nonspecific macrophage mediated tumour cell killing while 1.4-alpha-glucan( starch), 1.6-alpha-glucan (dextran), and 1.6-alpha-mannan were without effect. The corresponding soluble polysaccharides did not stimulate the macrophages. “

Tumors: Fukase S, Inoue T, Arai S, Sendo F; “Tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in beige mice: linkage of high responsiveness to linear beta-1,3-D-glucan with the beige gene.” Cancer Res. 47:4842-4847. 1987.

Tumors – Regression: Seljelid R, “A water-soluble aminated beta 1-3D-glucan derivative causes regression of solid tumors in mice,” Biosci Rep 6(9):845-851. Sep 1986.*

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347)“The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Tumors: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: “Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Tumors:  Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304.   Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1982. Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumour cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabeled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Tumors: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labeled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., McNamee R.B., Wiliams D.L., Gilbert K.M., Spanjers M.A., “Glucan induced inhibition of tumor growth and enhancement of survival in a variety of transplantable and spontaneous murine turmor models;” Adv Exp Med Biol 121A:269-290, 1980.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibitory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.* Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Tumors : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; “Clinical experiences with the use of glucan.” Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Tumors: Proctor J.W., Stiteler R.D., Yamamura Y., Mansell P.W., Winters R., “Effect of glucan and other adjuvants on the clearance of radiolabeled tumor cells from mouse lungs”, Cancer Treat. Rep. ^2 (11): 1873-1880. 1978.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Hoffman E.D., “Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to experimental tumors.” Prog. Cancer  Therapy, 2: 475-499. 1977.

Tumors: Scholtz R.M., et al; “Association of macrophage activation with antitumor activity by synthetic and biological agents.” Cancer Res., 37:3338-33343. 1977.

Tumors: Kasai, S., Fujimoto S., Nitta K., Baba H., Kunimoto T., “Antitumor activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes activated by a B-1,3-D-glucan”.  J. Pharmacobiodyn.  14:519-525. Medline.

Tumors: Mansell P.W.A. and DiLuzio N.R., “The in vivo destruction of human tumor by glucan activated macrophages. Macrophage in Neoplasia Fink, ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 227-243. 1976.

Tumors: Morikawa K., Takeda M., Yamazaki, M., and Mizuno D., “Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear B-1,3-D-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells”. Cancer Res., 45: 1496-1501. (Medline).

U

 

Ulcers – Decubitus  – See also “Wound Healing”

 

Ulcers – Decubitus -Wound Healing: Maitan J, Jesenak M, “B-Glucans: Multi-Functional Modulator of Wound Healing,” Molecules, 1;23(4) PMID: 29614757, Apr 2018. Quote: “B-glucans enhance wound repair by increasing the infiltration of macrophages, which stimulates tissue granulation, collagen deposition and repithelialization. B-glucan wound dressings represent a suitable wound healing agent, with great stability and resistance to wound proteases.”  Note: repithelialization is the process of covering a wound with a new layer of surface epithelial tissue.

Ulcers – Decubitus-Wound  Healing: Portera CA, Love EJ, Browder IW, Williams DL, et al. “Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound.” Am Surg, 63(2):125-31, PMID 9012425, Feb 1997. Quote:“Immunomodulators that enhance macrophage function have been shown to be beneficial in a number of wound-healing models in humans and in experimental animals. …These data indicate that macrophage modulation with glucan phosphate will increase tensile strength in experimental colon and skin wounds. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between glucan phosphate treatment, wound tensile strength, and collagen biosynthesis.”

Ulcers – Decubitus-Human Clinical Study: Browder, DeLusio, et al. “Advances in Immunopharmacology: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Immunopharmacolgy.” May 6-9, 1985. Quote: “…clinical study [21 decubitus ulcers were] treated by the application of particulate glucan…to enhance wound healing by macrophage activation [resulting in] attraction of fibroblasts to the wound area with the subsequent enhancement of collagen formation and wound repair ..as well as reduced infections at the wound site as a consequence of macrophage mobilization and activation. ..17 of 21 Stage IV type ulcers or 81% were markedly improved in a relatively short period of time (2-4 weeks.) [with] a significant decrease in wound surface area….These studies clearly indicate that particulate glucan may have a significant role in the promotion of wound healing when topically applied to wound areas.”

Ulcers – DecubitusBrowder I.W., DiLuzio N.R., et al. “Enhanced Healing of Decubitus Ulcers by Topical Application of Particulate Glucan.” Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Summary. 1984

Ulcers, Pressure – Human Study – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: “Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life.”

Ulcers – Venous-Human Study: Medeiros SD, et al; “Effects of Purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1-3)-B-Glucan on Venous Ulcer Healing;”  Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias Ave., Petrópolis, Natal, RN 59012-570, Brazil; Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8142-58. Jul 2, 2012. Quote: The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysis after 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. …”water-insoluble (1-3)-B-glucan isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was applied in the form of a cream with a final concentration of 3% directly onto the ulcer bed of 12 patients. This procedure was performed daily for up to 90 days. The…average percentage reduction of an ulcer was 11.3% after 30 days of treatment and 55.23% after 90 days. Insoluble B-glucan has been shown to enhance venous ulcer healing and increase epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increase plasmocyte and fibroblast proliferation.”This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing.”

 

Upper-respiratory tract infections (URTI) – See Respiratory also.

 

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection-Human Double Blind Trial:   Mah E, Kaden VN, Kelley KM, Liska DP, “Soluble and Insoluble Yeast B-Glucan Differentially Affect Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Marathon Runners: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” J Med Food, doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0076, PMID: 31573387, Oct 1 2019. Quote: “…Total severity of URTI [Upper Respiratory Tract Infection] was significantly lower in the insoluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …Severity ratings for nasal discharge was significantly lower in both the insoluble and soluble yeast B-glucan groups compared to the placebo groups. …severity rating for sore throat was lower in the insoluble, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group compared to the placebo group. …The insoluble yeast B-glucan group, but not the soluble yeast B-glucan group also reported fewer URTI symptomatic days compared to the placebo group.”

Upper Respiratory Tract – Influenza/Colds-Human Controlled Trial:  Mah E, Kaden V, Kelley KM, Liska DJ, “Beverage Containing Dispersible Yeast B-Glucan Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J Diet Suppl, (Welm) DOI: 10.1080/19390211.2018.1495676, PMID: 30380356, Oct 31 2018. Quote: “In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel study, we examined the effect of dairy-based beverages (250 mL/day) containing 250 mg of dispersible baker’s yeast B-glucan (Well-) compared to macronutrient- and calorie-matched control on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in marathon runners. Total URTI severity was significantly lower for B-glucan (4.52) compared to control (5.60). Overall, consumption of dairy-based beverages containing dispersible yeast B-glucan decreased URTI symptomatic days, severity of specific URTI symptoms, and missed postmarathon workout days due to URTI, without affecting duration and number of URTI episodes.”

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection – Double blind Human Clinical Study Dharsono T, Rudnicka K, Wilhelm M, Schoen C, “Effects of Yeast (1,3)-(1,6-Beta-Glucan on Severity of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs): A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects,” J Am Coll Nutr, Epub, PMID: 30198828, doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1478339. Sept 2018. Quote, “Subjects supplementing with yeast beta-glucan benefit by a reduced severity of physical URTI symptoms during the first week of an episode,…Furthermore, accompanying benefits in terms of blood pressure and mood were identified.  Altogether, yeast beta-glucan supports the immune function to defend against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract.  In the study of Mosikanon et al, the increase of IL-10 [by beta glucan] was associated with a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a. …beta glucan administration may train the monocytes to react more quickly and more efficiently by the robust production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that facilitate the blockage of the inflammatory process and the severity of the symptoms.”

Upper Respiratory-Human Studies Review: Jesenak M, Urbancikova I, Banovcin P, “Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention,” Nutrients, 9(7) PMID 28726737, Jul 20, 2017. Quote:“Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. …Based on published studies, the application of B-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children …, adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived B-glucans), and in elite athletes… .”

Upper Respiratory- Human Clinical Trial:  Fuller R, Moore MV, Lewith G, Stuart BL, Omiston RV, Fisk HL, NOakes PS, Calder PC. “Yeast-derived B-1,3/1,6 glucan, upper respiratory tract infection and innate immunity in older adults.” Nutrition, 39-40:30-35. doi: 10.1016/j.nut..03.003. PMID: 28606567. Jul-Aug 2017.  Quote: “Daily oral B-1,3/1,6 glucan may protect against URTIs [upper respiratory tract infections] and reduce the duration of URTI symptoms in older individuals once infected. …A refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide [beta glucan] food supplement may decrease the duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infection.” [Note: double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 100 adults 50-70 yrs]

Upper Respiratory-Human Children Clinical Trial: Meng F, “Baker’s Yeast Beta-Glucan Decreases Episodes of Common Childhood Illness in 1 to 4 Year Old Children during Cold Season in China,” Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 6:518. 2016. Quote: “Infections, especially upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), are common in early childhood…The ability of bakers yeast beta glucan (BYBG) to reduce the number of episodes of common childhood illness in 1 to 4 year old children was evaluated in a 12 week randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study conducted in China. …85% of children in the placebo group experienced one or more episodes of infectious illness. By contrast, there were only 47% and 32% children in BYBG treatment groups experienced infectious illness, significantly less than placebo group. The placebo group had significantly higher URTI incidence per child and more days with URTI symptoms.”

Upper Respiratory – Influenza/Colds-Human Study:   Fuller FB, Hamza B, Noakes PS, “Influence of yeast-derived 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide on circulating cytokines and chemokines with respect to upper respiratory tract infections,” Nutrition, Vol 28, Issue 6, Pgs 665-669, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012, June 2012. Quote: “This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial lasting 9o days. One hundred healthy individuals were randomized to 250 mg of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] once daily or to an identical rice flower-based placebo. The [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI symptoms (198 d…vs 241 d…). The ability to ‘breathe easily’ was significantly improved in the [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] group; … Cytokines and chemokines were not different between the groups … .”

Upper Respiratory – Influenza/Colds-Human Study:   Feldman SS, Kalman DS, Mayers A, Kohrman HM, Clemens R, Krieger DR, “Randomized Phase II Clinical Trials of Wellmune for Immune Support During Cold and Flu Season,” Journal of Applied Research: 9:30-42; Miami Research Associates, USC School of Pharmacy, July 16, 2009. Quote: “This pilot trial examined whether beta-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can favorably decrease the risk of or symptomology associated with upper respiratory illness. Forty healthy adult subjects (18-65 years of age) were enrolled in a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group trial conducted during cold/flu season. The treatment compared Wellmune WGP gluco polysaccharide (beta glucan) (500 mg/d) vs a placebo (500 mg rice flour). Cold/flu symptoms were evaluated by medical staff … . There were no significant differences in the incidence of symptomatic respiratory infections (SRIs) among the study groups. However, none of subjects in the WGP group missed work or school due to colds, while …the placebo group missed an average of 1.38 days. Quality of Life, assessed by the Physical Component Summary score, improved significantly in the WPG group vs the placebo group after 90 days … . The WGP group had a significantly lower average fever score that the placebo group … . No adverse events were detected and no safety concerns were presented.  This preliminary study suggests 1,3-1,6 beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae may modulate the  immune system and reduce some risks associated with upper respiratory influenza infections.”

 

Uranium depleted – Vetvicka V, “Effects of B-glucan on some environmental toxins: An overview.”  Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub;  ;158(1):1-4. PMD: 24399292 2014. Quote: “…glucan reduces the immunosuppressive effects of a number of agents including chemo therapy and radiation. … An overview of the effects of glucan on the mycotoxin, aflotoxin and other environmental toxins (mercury-thimerosal, depleted uranium).  Glucan is effective as a natural immunomodulator and could be used as an inexpensive solution to reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins.”

Uranium depleted – Pourahmad J, Shaki F, et al, “Protective effects of fungal B-(1-3)-D-glucan against oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by depleted uranium in isolated rat hepatocytes,.” Hum Exp Toxicol, 173-81, PMID 201522489, Mar 2011. Quote: “In conclusion, our results confirmed the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of B-(1-3)-D-glucan and suggested this compound and silymarin as possible drug candidates for prophylaxis and treatment against depleted uranium toxic effects.”

 

V

 

Vaccine: Roohvand f, Shokri M, Abdollahpour-Alitappeh M, Ehsani P, “…Yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.” Expert Opin Ther Pat,doi:10.1080/13543776.2017.1339789. PMID 28608761. June 13, 2017. Quote: Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall B-glucans [beta 1,3/1,6] …have expanded their application as a new platform, ‘Whole Yeast Vaccines.”

 

Vaccine Adjuvant: See also “Adjuvant”

 

Vaccine Adjuvant:   Lang S, Huang X, “Carbohydrate Conjugates in Vaccine Developments,” Front Chem, 8:284, PMID: 32351942, doi: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00284, Apr 15 2020. Quote: “Vaccines are powerful tools that can activate the immune system for protection against various diseases. …Polysaccharides such as dextran and B-glucan can serve as smart vaccine carriers for efficient antigen delivery to immune cells.”

Vaccine Adjuvant:   Vetvicka V, Vannucci L, ” B-glucan as a new tool in vaccine development,” Scand J Immunol, 91(2) doi:10.1111/sji.12833, PMID 31544248, Feb 2020. Quote: “…development of more immunogenic vaccine alternatives to using aluminum-based adjuvants is one of the most important phases of vaccination development. Amongst different sources, …glucans were found to be the most promising vaccine adjuvant, as they alone stimulate various immune reactions including antibody production without any negative side effects.  The use of glucan particles as a delivery system is a viable option based on the documented efficient antigen loading and receptor-targeted uptake in antigen-presenting cells.”

Vaccine Adjuvant:Aging:  Song L, Yuan J, Ni S, Zhou Y, Wang X, Chen Y, Zhang S, “Enhancement of adaptive immune responses of aged mice by dietary intake of B-glucans, with special emphasis on anti-aging activity,” Mol Immunol, 117:160-167, PMID: 31801102, DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2019.10.019. Dec 1 2019. Quote: “The naturally occurring polysaccharide, B-1,3-glucans, a well known immunostimulant, has been highly valued for many years for their health-promoting and anti-aging properties. …We then showed that dietary intake of B-1,3-glucans induced a significant increase in T helper cells (CDE4) in young, middle-aged and aged male mice.  These data together indicate that oral administration of B-1,3-glucans enhanced the adaptive immune responses of aged mice without disturbing their general condition and physiology, supporting the idea that B-1,3-glucans are capable of counteracting the immunosenescence [various immune response aging negatives] of mice. They also suggest that B-1,3-glucans can be clinically useful to help the elderly generate an improved response to vaccine with stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.”

Vaccine Adjuvant:  Abraham A, Ostroff G, et al, “A novel vaccine platform using glucan particles for induction of protective responses against Francisella tularensis and other pathogens,” Clin Exp Immunol, doi:10.111cei.13356, PMID: 31400225, Aug 10 2019. Quote: “However for many pathogens, it has been challenging to develop vaccines that stimulate protective, long-lasting immunity. We have developed a novel approach using B-1,3-D-glucans (BGs), natural polysaccharides abundantly present in fungal cell walls, as a biomaterial platform for vaccine delivery. BGs simultaneously provide for receptor-targeted antigen delivery to specialized antigen-presenting cells together with adjuvant properties to stimulate antigen-specific and trained non-specific immune responses.”

Vaccine Adjuvant – Parasites: Vetvicka V, Fernandez-Boltran R, “B-Glucan and Parasites,” Helminthologia, 55(3):177-184, PMID: 316626645, Jul 28 2018. Quote: “Immunosuppression caused by parasitic infections represents the foremost way by which the parasites overcome or escape the host’s immune response. …Our review is focused on the possible roll of glucan’s action in antiparasite therapies and vaccine strategies. …glucan studies have consistently shown its ability to offer solid protection against parasitic infections. The overwhelming conclusion reached from this review is that, as an adjuvant, glucan can be as effective as, and at the same time safer than, conventional bacterial or other adjuvants.”

Vaccine Adjuvant: Mirza Z, Soto ER, Dikengil F, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR, “Beta-Glucan Particles as Vaccine Adjuvant Carriers.” Methods Mol Biol, 1625:143-157. soi 10.1007/978-1-4939-7104-6_11; PMID 28584989; 2017. Quote: …the GP [glucan particles] delivery system possesses B-glucan’s intrinsic immunostimulatory properties. Therefore, GP’s serve as both an antigen-presenting cell-targeted delivery system and an adjuvant.” 

Vaccine Adjuvant: Wang M, Zhang L, et al, “Improvement of immune responses to influenza vaccine (H5N1) by sulfated yeast beta glucan,” Int J Biol Macromol, 93(Pt A):203-207, PMID: 27339320, Dec 2016. Quote: …the adjuvant activity of sulfated glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sGSC) was investigated.  …The results showed that sGSC could significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation, effectively increase the percentage of CD4 T cells, decrease the percentage of CD8 T cells, and elevate the CD4/CD8 ratio; enhance the Il antibody titre, and promote the production of IL-2, INF-y, IL-4 and IL-6 at medium level. These results indicated that sulfated glucan showed an excellent adjuvant effect on H5N1 vaccine in a mouse model. Therefore, sGSC (sulfated glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) could be used as an effective immune adjuvant for an inactivated H5N1 vaccine.”

Vaccine Adjuvant: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. 2015. Quote: “The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganisms…Microparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ….Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.

Vaccine Adjuvant: Huang H, Lee CK, Specht CA, et al, “Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles,” MBio, 1(3) PMID 20802824, Jul 20 2010. Quote: “Thus, the beta-Glucan particles (GPs) – based vaccine platform combines adjuvanicity and antigen delivery to induce strong humoral and Th1- and Th17 – biased CD4(+) T-cell responses.”

Vaccine – Aspergillosis: Clemons KV, Danielson ME, et al, “Whole glucan particles as a vaccine against murine Aspergillosis.” J Med Microbiol, 63(Pt 12):1750-9. PMID 25288643. Dec 2014. Quote: “Vaccination with … Saccharomyces cerevisiae protects against experimental infection by pathogenic fungi of five genera. …Vaccination with whole glucan particles…proved protective against systemic aspergillosis, equivalent to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, supporting the potential of particulate B-glucans, alone or conjugated, as vaccines against aspergillosis.”  Note: Saccharomyces cerevisiae in research is particulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.

Vaccine Adjuvant – Rabies-Human Study:  Tino MS, Carieri ML et al; “Imunomodulatory effect of glucan on the response to experimental antirabies vaccination.” Rev. Insti. Med. Troop. Sao Paulo 35:431-435. PMID: 8115811, 1993. Quote: “Glucan increased both resistance to infection and antibody titres and this effect was more evident when glucan was used at a dose of .5 mg, administered intraperitoneally before, during and after immunization and when the challenge virus was applied to the food-pad.”

Vaccine Adjuvant:   Berner VK, Sura ME, Hunter KW Jr, “Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations.” Appl Microbiol Bioechnol, 80:1053-61, PMID: 18677470, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1618-8m, Aug 2 2008. Quote: “Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG) from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because MG particles are rapidly phagocytized by murine peritoneal macrophages and induce the expression of B7 Costimulatory molecules, we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. …These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG …and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to protein antigens.”

Particulate β-glucans isolated from yeast are hollow, porous 2–4 μm spheres with an outer shell capable of mediating uptake by phagocytic cells. Therefore, the high payload of therapeutic agents, such as DNA, siRNA, protein/ peptide, and small molecules could be reduced by encapsulating these agents into the particles using a core-polyplex and layer-by-layer synthetic strategies and be applied to optimize the tumor microenvironment for cancer immunotherapy (64). For example, an in situ layer-by-layer syntheses of DNA-caged yeast β-glucan particles was shown to not only effectively protect the caged DNA from degradation but also facilitate the systemic delivery of the DNA content to macrophages in vivo (6566). The particle size of glucan matters and its generally known that nanoparticles with a diameter 1–2 μm are better absorbed by macrophages than large-size particles.

Vaccine Development Platform:  Abraham A, Ostroff G, Levitz SM, Oyston PCF, “A novel vaccine platform using glucan particles for induction of protective responses against Francisella tularensis and other pathogens,” Clin Exp Immunol, 198(2): 143-152, PMID: 31499225, Nov 2019. Quote: “…they [BG/B-1,3-D-glucans] are classified as ‘generally regarded as safe’ (GRAS) materials and used orally as a nutraceutical. …The power of using BGs  for vaccine development lies in their ability to stimulate all three arms of immunity: innate, trained and adaptive. …BGs act as PAMPs that are recognized by macrophage- or dendritic cell (DC)-specific transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Dectin-1 or complement receptor 3 (CR3). Glucan binding to these PRRs leads to a cascade of signalling events resulting in phagocytosis of the glucan shell, release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, anti-microbial proteins (lysozyme, defensins) and enhanced oxidative burst.”

Vaccine Delivery System:   Vetvicka V, Vannucci L, ” B-glucan as a new tool in vaccine development,” Scand J Immunol, doi:10.1111/sji.12833, PMID 31544248, Sep 22 2019. Quote: “Among the numerous categories of particulate antigen [vaccine] delivery systems, …the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived B-glucan microparticles could be regarded as the most promising for an oral delivery platform. Particulate nanocarriers, which may exert a high adjuvant potential and could increase the immune response to vaccination due to their size and structural similarity to natural pathogens.”

Vaccine Adjuvant Delivery System: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. 2015. Quote: “The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganisms…Microparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ….Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.

Vaccine Adjuvant Delivery System:   Berner VK, Sura ME, Hunter KW Jr, “Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations.” Appl Microbiol Bioechnol, 80:1053-61, PMID: 18677470, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1618-8m, Aug 2 2008. Quote: “Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG) from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because MG particles are rapidly phagocytized by murine peritoneal macrophages and induce the expression of B7 Costimulatory molecules, we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. …These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG …and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to protein antigens.”

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE):   Reynolds JA, Kastello MD, Di Luzio NR, et al, “Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to selected infectious diseases,” Infect Immun (1):51-7, PMID 7439978, Oct 30 1980. Quote: “Intravenous pretreatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced the survival of mice challenged with either Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus or Rift Valley fever virus.”

Venous Ulcers: See Ulcers – Venous

 

Viral Diseases and Infections – See also Infections

 

Viral Diseases: COVID-19: Horowitz RI, Freeman PR, “Three Novel Prevention, Diagnostic, and Treatment Options for COVID-19 Urgently Necessitating Controlled Randomized Trials,” Medical Hypotheses, Vol 143, PMID: 32534175, PMCID: PMC7242962, DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109851, May 22 2020. Quote: “Prevention practices [for COVID-19] that need to be scientifically evaluated…shown to have anti-viral effects against COVID-19 in vitro, [are] nutraceuticals including zinc, vitamin C, Beta-glucan and GSH. …Beta-glucans have been extensively published in the medical literature as having significant immunomodulatory properties and double blind, placebo controlled trials [Fuller R, 2011, DOI 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012 and Dharsono T, 2019, DOI 10.1080/07315724.2018.1478339] have shown benefit in decreasing the severity of upper respiratory tract infections and lowering monocyte chemotactic protein-1.”  Note: GSH refers to glutathione.

Viral Infection – Herpes-simplex 1 – Human Trial:  Urbancikova I, Hudackova D, et al, “Efficacy of Pleuran ( B-[1,3/1,6] glucan [insoluble] rom PLeurotus ostreatus) in the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus Tpe 1 Infection,”  doi: 10.1155/2020/8562309, PMID: 32419831, Apr 13 2020. Quote: “One of the highly prevalent viral pathogens among children and adults causing infection…is herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). …Therefore the development of natural drugs with low toxicity that are able to enhance host antiviral defense against HSV infection is needed. B-Glucans represent a type of biologically active molecules possessing antiviral properties. …Active treatment with pleuran [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan] …caused a significantly shorter duration of herpes simplex [viral] symptoms compared to the placebo group.”

Viral Infections-RNA-Influenza and Coronavirus:  McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ, “Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases published by Elsevier, PMID: 32061635; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.02.007, Feb 12 2020. Quote: “In light of a worldwide concern regarding the recent outbreak of a deadly novel strain of coronavirus, it is fortuitous that…recent discoveries point the way to effective nutraceutical measures for potentiation the type 1 interferon response to interferon response to RNA viruses [including influenza and coronavirus]. ….With respect to practical efforts to prevent and control RNA virus infections [including influenza and coronavirus], nutraceutical preparations intended to provide protection in this respect might reasonably also include brewer’s yeast beta-glucan – which can amplify dendritic cell activation via dectin-1 and CR3 receptors; this agent has clinically documented immuostimulant effects, and has been shown to protect mice challenged with influenza virus. …Provisional daily dosage suggestions for nutraceuticals that might aid control of RNA viruses including inflluenza and coronavirus: Ferulic acid-500-1,000 mg or Lipoic acid-1,200 to 1,800 mg; Spirulina-15g; N-Acetylcysteine-1,200 to 1,800 mg; Selenium-50 to 100 mcg; Glucosamine-3,000 mg; Zinc-30 to 50 mg; Yeast Beta-Glucan-250 to 500 mg; Elderberry-600 to 1,500 mg.”

Viral Diseases: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J, “Glucan supplementation enhances the immune response against an influenza challenge in mice.” Ann Transl Med, 3(2):22 PMID 25738142, Feb 2015. Quote: …we focused on possible effects of a…glucan formulation on immunosuppression caused by influenza infection. We found that a 2-week oral feeding with glucan mixture significantly reduced the effects of influenza infection in total mortality. Our study was focused on phagocytosis, cytokine levels, antibody response and cytotoxicity assay. ...Based on our data, we concluded that these effects are caused by [beta glucan] stimulation of both cellular and humoral immune reaction resulting in lower viral load.”

Viral Diseases“The Biological activity of beta-glucans”; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009. Quote“…Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses.beta-1,3-glucans improve the body’s immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection].”

Viral Infections:  Jung K, Y Ha, et al, “Antiviral Effect of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Beta-Glucan to Swine Influenza Virus by Increased Production of Interferon-Gamma and Nitric Oxide,” Clinical Trial, J V”et Med & B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 51(2) 72-6, PMID: 15030604, Mar 2004. Quote: “Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan reduced the pulmonary lesion score and viral replication rate by SIV [swine influenza virus] -infected pigs.  These findings support the potential application of beta-glucan as prophylactic [preventive]/treatment agent in influenza virus infection.”

Viral Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections.”

Viral Pathogens: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote: “MG Glucan [micronized glucan insoluble particulate] has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms [viral, bacterial, fungal, etc.] that cause infectious disease…Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Viral Infection :  Bohn JA, BMiller JN, “(1-3)-b-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: a review of structure-functional activity relationships,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol 28, Issue 1, 3-14, 1995. Quote: “(1-3)-B-D-Glucans that have B-D-glucopyranosyl units attached by (1-6) linkages as single unit branches enhance the immune system systemically. This enhancement results in antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, anticoagulatory and wound healing activities. …immunopotentiation effected by binding of a (1-3)-B-glucan molecule or particle probably includes activation of cytotoxic macrophages, helper T cells, and NK cells, promotion of T cell differentiation, and activation of the alternative complement pathway.”

Viral Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; “Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients.” Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent  macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.“

Viral – staphylococcal mastitis : Buddle BM, et al, “Protective effect of glucan against experimentally induced staphylococcal mastitis in ewes.” Vet Microbiol 16(1): 67-76, Jan 1988.

Viral Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986. Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens.

Viral Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Visceral Leishmaniasis:  Cook J.A., et al, “Protective Effect of Glucan Against Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters”.  Immun.; 37: 1261-1269. 1982.

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Bonfim-Mendonca Pde S, et al; “B-Glucan Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neutrophils to Improve the Killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Isolates from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis”; PLoS One (Public Library of Science), 9(9):e107805. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107805. eCollection 2014. Sep 17, 2014. Quote: “B-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that B-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal [microbe destroying] response of neutrophils for both of the species [Candida albicans and Candida glabrata] isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis.”

W

 

Weight Control  – Obesity-Double Blind Human Clinical Trial: Mosikannon K, Arthan D, et al, “Yeast B-Glucan Modulates Inflammation and Waist Circumference in Overweight and Obese Subjects,” J Diet Suppl, PMID 27715351, August 11:1-13 2016: Quote: “A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial design enrolled 44 overweight/obese participants with body mass index ≥23 kg/m2. Supplementation of yeast β-glucan for six weeks modulated pro-cytokines that accelerate overweight/obese comorbidities [multiple health issues] and reduced blood pressure as well as waist circumference, the strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in overweight/obese subjects. Thus, β-glucan might have the potential to decrease comorbid conditions associated with overweight/ obesity.”

Weil’s Disease – Leptospirosis-Human Study: Wang J, Jin Z, et al, “The preventable efficacy of B-glucan against leptospirosis,” PloS Negl Trop Dis, 13(11):e000789, PubMed:31675378, Nov 1, 2019. Quote: “B-Glucan also significantly increased the survival rates and ameliorated pathological damage to organs. Moreover, we demonstrated that B-glucan-trained macrophages exhibited elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1B and IL-6) in vitro, indicating that B-glucan induces an enhanced inflammatory response against Leptospira [bacterial] infection.” Note: Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria. Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild such as headaches, muscle pains, and fevers to severe with bleeding from the lungs or meningitis. If the infection causes the person to turn yellow, have kidney failure and bleeding, it is then known as Weil’s disease.

White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

 

Wound Healing – See also Ulcers, Decubitus Ulcers

 

Wound Healing-Human Clinical Trial: Elg F, Posnett J, Hunt S, “Cost-effectiveness of soluble beta-glucan gel in hard-to-heal wounds: an evaluation.”, J Wound Care, 28(7):454-460, PMID: 31295099, Jul 2, 2019. Quote: “At 24 weeks, the beta-glucan group … of 144 patients and 136 patients in the standard care group,…[the beta-glucan group] had a 96% healing rate compared with 75% in the standard care group. …The improvement in healing was associated with a reduction in the mean number of weeks of treatment per patient (7.2 and 10.7 for beta-glucan and standard, respectively) …In a subset of ulcer wounds (50% of full sample), at 24 weeks the beta-glucan group had a 92% healing rated compared with 46% in the standard care group. …. The results of this evaluation suggest that short-term use of the beta-glucan gel as an adjunct to standard care on slow-healing wounds can shorten healing times and reduce NHS costs.”  Note: NHS is National Health Service in UK.

Wound Healing-Human Study:   Muthuramalingam K, Choi SI, et al, “B-Glucan-Based Wet Dressing for Cutaneous Wound Healing,” Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle), 1:8(4):125-135, PMID: 31737411, April 1 2019. Quote: “Recognized as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), B-glucans, a naturally occurring heterogeneous group of polysaccharides, were investigated for their ability to accelerate wound healing in the form of high water-retaining hydrogel dressing. …B-Glucan based hydrogel significantly accelerated the duration of wound healing and enhanced the development of skin appendages in the regenerate skin tissue.  Increased expression of transforming growth factor-B3 in the skin tissue isolated from the healed wound site indicated that skin regeneration rather than skin repair occurred, thereby minimizing cutaneous scarring. …Immunomodulating B-glucan (responsible for fighting infections at wound site, and enhancing the migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts) in the form of a three-dimensional hydrogel membrane that retains a high water content (responsible for cooling and soothing effect around the wound site, thereby reducing pain) was prepared and analyzed for its effects on cutaneous wound healing mechanism. …B-Glucan-based hydrogels are promising as wet wound dressings in the health care industry.”

Wound Healing-Human Study: Yasuda K, Ogushi M, et al, “Accelerated Wound Healing on the Skin Using a Film Dressing with B-Glucan Paramylon,,” In Vivo, 32(4): 799-805, PMID 29936461, July-Aug 2018, Quote, “The dressing suppressed elevation of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor. …B-Glucan paramylon film can facilitate wound healing by inhibiting inflammatory aggression and has potential application as a novel wound dressing.”

Wound Healing: Grip J, Engstat RE, Lkjaeveland I, Skalko-Basnet N, et al, “Beta-glucan-loaded nanofiber dressing improves wound healing in diabetic mice.” , Eur J Pharm Sci, S0928-0987(18)30256-2; PMID 29864585, June 1 2018. Quote: “...The BG [beta glucan] was selected as active ingredient based on its confirmed wound healing potential in both animals and humans. …All BG-nanofiber treated groups exhibited significantly improved wound healing as compared to the No BG-nanofiber treated group, indicating the potential of BG-nanofibers as wound dressing.”

Wound Healing-Human Study: Majtan J, Jesenak M, “B-Glucans: Multi-Functional Modulator of Wound Healing,” Molecules, 1;23(4) PMID: 29614757, Apr 2018. Quote: “B-glucans enhance wound repair by increasing the infiltration of macrophages, which stimulates tissue granulation, collagen deposition and repithelialization. B-glucan wound dressings represent a suitable wound healing agent, with great stability and resistance to wound proteases.”  Note: repithelialization is the process of covering a wound with a new layer of surface epithelial tissue. …”water-insoluble (1-3)-B-glucan isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was applied in the form of a cream with a final concentration of 3% directly onto the ulcer bed of 12 patients. This procedure was performed daily for up to 90 days. The…average percentage reduction of an ulcer was 11.3% after 30 days of treatment and 55.23% after 90 days. Insoluble B-glucan has been shown to enhance venous ulcer healing and increase epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increase plasmocyte and fibroblast proliferation.”

Wound Healing: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova I, “Glucans and Cancer: Comparison of Commercially Available  B-glucans – Part IV,” Anticancer Res, 38(3):1327-1333, PMID 29491056, Mar 2018. Quote: “Among the well-studied effects of B-glucans, we can mention stimulation of both humoral and cellular immunity, metabolic control of diabetes, stimulation of wound healing, stress reduction, attenuation of chronic fatigue syndrome, lowering cholesterol levels, and inhibition of cancer. …Chronic respiratory problems.  In Japan, glucan has been widely used , for over 30 years, in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.”

Wound Healing:: Borchani C, Fonteyn F, etc, “Structural Characterization, Technological Functionality, and Physiological Aspects of Fungal B-D-glucans: A Review,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 56(10:1746-52, PMIC 25830657, Jul 2016: Quote: Thus, they [(1-3)(1-6)-B-glucans] are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells and metastasis and preventing bacterial infection. In humans, B-glucans reduce blood cholesterol, improve glucose absorption by body cells, and so help wound healing.

Wound Healing: Gulcelik M, Sahin D, Dincer H, Alagol H, “Glucan Improves Impaired Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats,” Wounds, 22(1) April 2015: Quote: “The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of glucan on improving abdominal wall wound healing in rats with Diabetes mellitus (DM). …These results demonstrate that glucan improves impaired wound healing in rats with Diabetes mellitus (DM)”,

Wound Healing-Double Blind Human Clinical Trial:  Zykova SN, Balandina KA, et al, “Macrophage stimulating agent soluble yeast B-1/3/1,6-glucan as a topical treatment of diabetic foot and leg ulcers: A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled phase II study,”  J Diabetes Investig, 5(4):392-399, PMID: 25411598, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00288392, July 2014. Quote: “Local treatment of diabetic lower extremity ulcers with B-1,3/1,6-polyglucose shows good safety results. This B-glucan preparation shows promising potential as a treatment of accelerating cutaneous healing. …B-glucan can also directly induce production of collagen by dermal fibroblast in vitro.”

Wound Healing-Human Study-Burns: Van den Bert LM, Ziijstra-Willems EM, et al. “Dectin-1 activation induces proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes enhancing wound re-epithelialization;” Cell Immunonl, 289(1-2):49-54. PMID 24721111; May-Jun 2014. Quote: “Beta-glucans in temporary wound dressings have immuno-stimulatory capacities and have been shown to enhance wound healing in burn patients.”

Wound Healing-Human Studies Review: Steir H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, “Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan,” Nutr J; 13;38, PMID 24774968, Apr 28, 2014. Quote: “…several human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans have been performed.  The results confirm the previous findings of in vivo studies. The results of all studies taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect. ,,,Further, numerous studies reported other health benefits of B-glucans, including hepatoprotective, wound healing, weight loss, antidiabetic and cholesterol lowering functions.”

Wound Healing- Human Study: Mederos SD, et al; “Effects of Purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1-3)-B-Glucan on Venous Ulcer Healing;”  Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias Ave., Petrópolis, Natal, RN 59012-570, Brazil; Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8142-58. Epub Jul 2, 2012. Quote: The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysiafter 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing.”

Wound Healing – Diabetes-Human Study: Karaasian O, Kankaya Y, et al, “Case series of topical and orally administered B-glucan for the treatment of diabetic wounds: clinical study,” J Cutan Med Surg, 16(3):180-6, PMID 22713441, May-Jun 2012. Quote “Chronic, nonhealing wounds, foot ulcers, and lower extremity amputations are among the most problematic complications associated with diabetes mellitus….Our observations support the view that application of glucan hastens epithelialization and wound closure, so topically and orally administered B-(1,3)-glucan therapy can help reverse some of the deficits in impaired healing diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Note: human study group

Wound Healing: Berdal M, Appelbom HI, Eikrem JH et al: “Aminated B-1-3-D-glucan has dose-dependent effect on wound healing in diabetic db/db mice.” 19(5):579-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2011.00715.x; Sep-Oct.2011;. Quote:Inflammatory responses are common in diabetes and are operative in angiopathy, neuropathy, and wound healing. There are indications of incomplete macrophage activation in diabetes and reduced expression of growth factors. We have previously found that up to 15 topical applications of the macrophage-stimulant, aminated β-1,3-D-glucan (AG), improved wound healing in db/db mice.”

Wound Healing: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; “Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans,” Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem, PMID 21609131 Jun 7 2011. Quote: “The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing.”

Wound Healing: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J: “B(1,3)-D-glucan affects adipogenesis, wound healing and inflammation,” , Orient. Pharm Exp Med, May 16, 2011. Quote:..B(1-3)-D-glucans…strongly inhibited adipogenic differentiation, supported wound healing and significantly lowered skin irritation.

Wound Healing:  BGulcelik MA, Dincer H, et al, “Glucan improves impaired wound healing in diabetic rats.” Wounds, 22(1):12-6, PMID 25901457, Jan 2010. Quote: “Diabetes mellitus is a contributing factor to impaired wound healing in humans. …These results demonstrate that glucan improves impaired wound healing in rats with Diabetes mellitus (DM).”

Wound Healing – Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, “Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans,” Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, , Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). 2010. Quote:“Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing.”

Wound Healing-Human Study:  Cerci C, Yildirim M, Ceyhan M, Bozkurt S, Doguc D, Gokicimen A: “The effects of topical and systemic Beta Glucan administration on wound healing impaired by corticosteroids,” Wounds;10(12):341-6, PMID: 25941894, Dec 2008, Quote: “Although both systemic and local administration of beta glucan enhanced percentage wound  contraction, improved epithelialization time, tensile strength, and elevated hydroxyproline level, systemic administration was found to be more effective. These results indicate that systemic and topical beta glucan improve wound healing that has been impaired by corticosteroids… .”.

Wound Healing: Chen J, Raymond K, “Beta-glucans in the treatment of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks,” Vascular Health Risk Management, 4(6): 1265-1272; Dec 2008. QuoteManagement of diabetes includes: control of blood glucose level and lipids; and reduction of hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications.  In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury.”

Wound Healing:  Berdal M, Appelbom HI, etc, “Aminated beta-1,3-D-glucan improves wound healing in diabetic db/db mice,.” Wound Repair Regen 15(6):825-32 PMID 18028130, Nov-Dec 2007: Quote: “The macrophage-stimulant aminated beta-1,3-d glucan (AG) improves wound healing in db/db mice.”

Wound Healing: Dinc S, Durmus E, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B, Ustun H, REnda N, Alagol H, “Effects of beta-D-glucan on steroid-induced impairment of colonic anastomotic healing,” Acta Chir Belg, 106(1):63-67, PMID: 16612917, Jan-Feb 2006. Quote: “Inflammation during the early phase of anastomotic wound healing is an essential cellular response and is suppressed by corticosteroids. …Beta-D-glucan, a commonly used macrophage activator, has been shown to improve anastomotic wound healing under normal conditions.  The results indicate that in rat model, oral administration of beta-D-glucan causes a significant improvement in the healing of anastomotic [connecting two sections] wound impaired by long-term corticosteroid administration.”

Wound Healing: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis.”

Wound  Healing-Human Study:  Wei D, Zhang L, Williams DL, Browder IW, “Glucan stimulates human dermal fibroblast collagen biosynthesis through a nuclear factor-1 dependent mechanism,” Wound Repair Regen, 10(3):161-8, PMID: 12100377, May-Jun 2002. Quote: Previous data suggest that glucan modulates wound healing via an indirect mechanism in which macrophages are stimulated to release growth factors and cytokines. …These data indicate that a glucan can directly stimulate human fibroblast collagen biosynthesis through an NF-1-dependent mechanism.”

Wound  Healing-Human Children Study-Burns:  Delatte SJ, Evans J, Hebra A, Adamson W, Othersen HB, Tagge EP, “Effectiveness of beta-glucan collagen for treatment of partial-thickness burns in children,”  J Pediatr Surg, 36(1):113-118, PMID: 11150448, Jan 2001. Quote: “Observed advantages of BGC [Beta glucan collagen matrix] include reduction of pain, improved healing, and better scar appearance. …elimination of painful daily dressing changes to the burned epithelial surface, as well as decreased fluid loss. This report details the authors’ 2 year experience with the BGC in a pediatric burn center. … CONCLUSIONS: Partial-thickness burns in children can be effectively treated with BGC with good results, even in infants and toddlers.”

Wound  Healing: Portera CA, Love EJ, Browder IW, Williams DL, et al. “Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound.” Am Surg, 63(2):125-31, PMID 9012425, Feb 1997. Quote:“Immunomodulators that enhance macrophage function have been shown to be beneficial in a number of wound-healing models in humans and in experimental animals. …These data indicate that macrophage modulation with glucan phosphate will increase tensile strength in experimental colon and skin wounds. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between glucan phosphate treatment, wound tensile strength, and collagen biosynthesis.”

Wound Healing :  Bohn JA, BMiller JN, “(1-3)-b-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: a review of structure-functional activity relationships,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol 28, Issue 1, 3-14, 1995. Quote: “(1-3)-B-D-Glucans that have B-D-glucopyranosyl units attached by (1-6) linkages as single unit branches enhance the immune system systemically. This enhancement results in antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, anticoagulatory and wound healing activities. …immunopotentiation effected by binding of a (1-3)-B-glucan molecule or particle probably includes activation of cytotoxic macrophages, helper T cells, and NK cells, promotion of T cell differentiation, and activation of the alternative complement pathway.”

Wound Healing: Williams D.L. ,Mueller A., Mueller P., Swails  W., et. al., “Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients”.  Ann. Surg.; 220(5):601-609. 1994.

Wound Healing: Williams D.L., Browder IW. and DiLuzio NR., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

Wound  Healing-Human Study: Browder IW., Williams D., Lucor P., Pretus H., McNamee R., Jones E., “Effect of enhanced macrophage function on early wound healing,” Surgery, 104:224-230, PMID 3261048  1988. Quote: “Breaking strength was significantly increased by …topical glucan on the fourth day after incision, compared with controls. …We conclude that enhanced macrophage function increases early wound breaking strength.”

Wound Healing – Decubitus Ulcers-Human Clinical Study: Browder IW, DeLusio NR, et al. “Advances in Immunopharmacology: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Immunopharmacology”. May 6-9, 1985. Quote: “…clinical study [21 decubitus ulcers were] treated by the application of particulate glucan…to enhance wound healing by macrophage activation [resulting in] attraction of fibroblasts to the wound area with the subsequent enhancement of collagen formation and wound repair ..as well as reduced infections at the wound site as a consequence of macrophage mobilization and activation. ..17 of 21 Stage IV type ulcers or 81% were markedly improved in a relatively short period of time (2-4 weeks) [with] a significant decrease in wound surface area….These studies clearly indicate that particulate glucan may have a significant role in the promotion of wound healing when topically applied to wound areas.”

Wound Healing: Wolk, M. and Danon, D.; “Promotion of Wound Healing by Yeast Glucan Evaluated on Single Animals”; Medical Biology; 63:73-80. 1985.*R

Wound Healing: Kaplan J.; “Acceleration of Wound Healing by a Live Yeast Cell Derivative”.  Archives and Surgery”, Sep. 1984; 119:1005-1008. 1984.

Wound Healing: Leibovich SJ, Danon D, “Promotion of Wound Repair in Mice by Application of Glucan”.  J. Reticuloendothel, Soc. 27: 1-11. 1980. Quote: “Of all the substances tested, glucan was the only substance to exhibit a particularly marked enhancement of the proliferative phase of wound healing.  It appears, from these experiments, that the effect observed by others in terms of the activation of reticuloendothelial [immune response] function by glucan and the activation of macrophages, both locally and systematically, also apply to activation of macrophages in healing wounds.”

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Yeast Infections – See Candida Albicans and Allergies (Note:  While derived from yeast cell wall, Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is purified as an isolate in extraction and contains very limited yeast proteins (1-2%) and thus does neither trigger nor aggravate Candida Albicans or yeast infections.

Yeast Infections-Allergies:  Vaclav Vevicka, “Beta Glucan – Natures Secret,” 3rd Edition, Chap 21-Negative Effects, pg 141, ISBN:9780984144525, 2015. Quote: “A common question about possible problems with glucans causing allergy or promoting yeast infection can be easily answered. Good quality glucan is highly purified and contains only very limited amount of proteins, so it does not trigger allergic reaction or any immune reaction against glucan molecules.”

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial marketing entity and has no products of any kind. References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: No commercial brand names of products are presented or endorsed on this research website. Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,-derived beta glucan isolate with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is primarily uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not significantly reaggregate after the digestive process. “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin is abbreviated as BCG.

“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms. Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley while not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations. Letters such as NSC, WGP and others are associated with brand names and are not specific forms of Beta glucan, although the individual products often contain Beta glucan.

The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in various research presented is from multiple sources in various amounts; none determined nor controlled by this website. Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. PubMed IDs (PMID) and/or digital object identifiers (DOI) are presented for most research to be able to find additional information on the internet. Human studies and Clinical trials are indexed in Bold Print. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan or endorsement of the research by various entities herein.

Information and statements regarding beta glucan, dietary supplements or other products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, mitigate, or prevent any disease. No commercial products sold retail are included in this website.

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