"R" - "Z" Research   
Home "A" - "C" Research "D" - "H" Research "I" - "P" Research "R" - "Z" Research Search Research History FDA G.R.A.S. Beta Glucan Links

Beta Glucan Research Presented by Condition with Quotes as a Non Commercial Site

Home
"A" - "C" Research
"D" - "H" Research
"I" - "P" Research
"R" - "Z" Research
Search
Research History
FDA G.R.A.S.
Beta Glucan Links

Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"R" through "Z"

"Radiation" through "Yeast Infections" (including "Radiation", "Skin", "Tuberculosis," "Tumors," "Viral Infections" and "Wound Healing")

Rabies:  Tino MS, Carieri ML et al; “Imunomodulatory effect of glucan on the response to experimental antirabies vaccination.” Rev. Insti. Med. Troop. Sao Paulo 35:431-435. 1993

Radiation – See also Chemotherapy and Cancer

Radiation Therapy: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Radiation and Radiotherapy:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis [normal cell transformation to cancer cells] due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens [chemical capable of causing cancer]. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. ...tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Radiation (Irradiation): Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Radiation: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; "Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice," J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: "Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. ...Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy."

Radiation - Allendorf D.J., Knudsen G., Elliott T., et al, "Oral Whole Glucan Particles Beta Glucan Treatment Accelerates Myeloid Recovery and Survival after Radiation Exposure." Center for Mind-Body Medicine Comprehensive Care Symposium, April 2003. Quote: "Oral treatment with whole glucan particles may be a useful therapeutic intervention following radiation exposure to accelerate myeloid [bone marrow] recovery and increase survival after radiation exposure."

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Vaudrain T, Correira H, Martin T, Reese D, “In vitro and in vivo hematopoietic activities of Betafectin PGG-glucan.”, Exp Hematol, 26(13):1247-54. Dec 1998.

Radiation: Patchen M.L; Mork AC, Helmke RJ, Martinez JR, Michalek MT, Zhang GH, “Effects of particulate and soluble(1,3)-beta glucans on Ca2+ influx in NR8383 alveolar macrophages,” Immunopharmacology, 40(1):77-89. Dept of Pediatrics, U of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Jul 1998. Quote: “Benefectin PGG-Glucan, a beta-(1,6) branched beta-(1,3) glucan purified from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to synergize the myeloid growth factors in vitro and to enhance hematopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery in myelosuppressed  [bone marrow suppression] mice and primates. “

Radiation: Patchen M.L. [V Chrm, Dept of Surg, U of Washington], et al, “Mast Cell Growth Factor(c-kit Ligand) in Combination with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleulin-3: in vivo Hemopoietic effects in Irradiated Ice compared to in vivo effects”, Biotherapy; vol. 7. pp. 13-26. 1994.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Brook I, Elliott TB, Jackson WE, “Adverse effects of pefloxacin in irradiated C3H/HeN mice: correction with glucan therapy.”, Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy, Dept. of Experimental Hematology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) , Bethesda, Maryland, Sept. 1993.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Gallin EK, Green SW, “Comparative effects of particulate and soluble glucan on macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 14(2):173-83; Dept of Physiology, AFRRI, Feb 1992.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Quote: “Likewise, although both glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone enhanced survival following an 8-Gy radiation exposure, greatest survival was observed in mice treated with both agents. These studies suggest that glucan, a macrophage activator, can synergize the G-CSF to further accelerate hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] regeneration  and increase survival following radiation-induced myelosuppression [bone marrow suppression].”

Radiation: Patchen M.L.; “Radioprotective effect of oral administration of beta-1,3-glucan,” Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD Research Report, 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Postirradiation glucan administration enhances the radioprotective effects of WR-2721. “Radiat. Res. 117:59-69. 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Bowers GJ, Hirsch EF, Fink MP, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res, 47(2):183-8. Edward F. Hebert S of Medicine. Aug 1989.

Radiation: Patchen Ml, Chirigos MA, Brook I, “Use of glucan and other immunopharmacological agents in the prevention and treatment of acute radiation injuries,” Fundam Appl Toxicol, 11(4):573-4. AFRRI, Nov 1988.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987.

Quote: “These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate [convey] its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery. …glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize [ingest] and sequester [store] glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan’s scavenging ability is also suggested.”

Radiation: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986.

Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit [% of volume of packed red blood cells in a blood sample] values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; “Stimulated Hemopeiesis and Enhanced Survival Following Glucan Treatment in Sublethally and Lethally Irradiated Mice”. Int. J. Immunopharmac; 7: 923-932. 1985.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Wathen L; “Effects of pre- and post-irradiation glucan treatment on pluripotent stem cells, granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells and hemopoietic stromal cells.” Experientia. 40:1240-1244. 1984.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, MacVittie T.J.,”Dose-dependent responses of murine pluripotent stem cells and myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells following administration of immunomodulating agent glucan.” Immunopharmacology, 5(4):303-13, Apr 1983.

Quote: “The hemopoietic effects produced by six different doses of a commercially available glucan preparation were investigated….bone marrow pluripotent stem cells (CFU-s) content increased…In the spleen, all aspects of hemopoiesis [formation of blood cells] increased after glucan administration.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983.

Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation."

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Radiation - White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P[articulate] and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause ...; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Radiation Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”.  Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.

Radiation: Hemopoietic Regeneration: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Renal Failure (Nephropathy-Contrast Induced): Koc E, Reis KA, Ebinc FA, Pasaoglu H, Demirtas C, Omeroglu S, Derici UB, Erten Y, Bali M Arinsov T, Sindel S; "Protective effect of beta-glucan on contrast induced-nephropathy [acute renal failure] and a comparison of beta-glucan with nebivolol and N-acetylcysteine in rats." Dept of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey; Clin Exp Nephrol, Apr 26 2011. Quote: "...beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...This study suggest that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy."

Respiratory: Jorgensen J.B., Robertsen B.; “Yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) macrophages,” Dev Comp Immunol 19: 43-57. 1995.*

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Rheumatoid Arthritis – See Auto-Immune Disorders also.

 

Safety – FDA Classification: Carrow, D.J. MD; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Beta 1,3-glucan is a safe and potent nutritional supplement with a profound systemic effect that can be described as nonspecific immune stimulation combined with its free radical scavenging activity. Remember, beta 1,3-glucan is generally recognized as safe (category GRAS, according to FDA) and has no known toxicity or side effects.”

Safety – FDA: Federal Drug Administration, “Appendix A Food Additives,” Yeast extract (Bakers) – FL/ADJ, GRAS, See Specs 184.1983. Washington DC. http://www.fda.gov   1997.

Safety: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Pre-clinical Safety Evaluation of Soluble Glucan”, Int. J. Immunophamac. Vol. 10, No. 4: 405-414.  Dept of Phys, Tulane U Sch of Med, New Orleans, LA.  1988. Quote: “Soluble glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose biological response modifier, is effective in the therapy of experimental neoplasia, infectious diseases and immune suppression.”

Sarcoma – See Cancer also

Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Sarcoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Sepsis-Intraabdominal: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intra-abdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan)," J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998. Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”

Pneumonia: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Sepsis: Sener G, Toklu H, et al; "Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis," Int Immunopharmacol:1387-96 Epub 2005/Aug 2005. Quote: "Sepsis leads to various organ damage and dysfunction. One of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals. ...Elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels in septic rats [was] significantly reduced to control levels in beta-glucan treated rats. Since beta-glucan administration reversed these oxidant responses, it seems likely that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-induced oxidative organ injury."

Sepsis Associated Lung Damage - Sepsis: Babayigit H, Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Yazici C, Kose K, Akgun H.; Protective effect of beta-glucan on lung injury after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.” Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey; Intensive Care Med. (6):865-70; Jun 31, 2005. Quote: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis beta-glucan treatment partially protected against secondary lung injury, decreased lung hemorrhages, and lung neutrophilia. These results suggest that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-associated lung damage.”

Septic Shock: Williams D.L. ,et al; “The role of complement in glucan-induced protection against septic shock.” Circ. Shock. 25:53-60. 1988

Serum Glucose Control: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose."

Skin Damage: Donzis B.A.; Photoprotective composition containing yeast extract; U.S. Patent 5397773; 1995.

Skin Regeneration: Vacher, A M; "Cosmetic composition which includes at least one polysaccharide derived from bacteria of hydrothermal origin," U.S. Patent Application 20020187167, December 12, 2002. Quote: "It was shown, for example, that a .beta-glucan which was extracted from the wall of a yeast, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabled skin to regenerate."

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; "beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997.

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; Method of revitalizing skin by applying topically water insoluble glucan; U.S. Patent 5223491; 1993.

Skin: Ber L., “The Skin Connection;” Natures Impact, Dec 1997. Quote: "The effect of a cosmetic regimen containing beta-1,3-glucan on the signs of aging in the skin was evaluated in 150 women, ages 35 to 60. A 27 percent improvement in skin hydration was observed after eight weeks of using the regimen twice a day. A measurable improvement in lines and wrinkles at the end of the study reached 47 percent, firmness and elasticity increased by 60 percent and skin color improved by 26 percent."

Skin: Katz S.; “The skin as an Immunologic Organ,” National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD – J. Am. Academy of Dermatology; Vol 13:3; 530-536; 1985.

Skin: Murphy G, Messadi D, Fonterko E, Hancock W; “Phenotypic Transformation of Macrophages to Langerhans Cells in the skin;” Am. J. Pathology; Vol 123:401-406. 1986.

Small Particle Size Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Spinal Cord Injury:  Kayali H, Ozdag MF, Kahraman S, Aydin A, Gonul E, Sayal A, Odabasi Z, Timurkaynak E.; The antioxidant effect of beta-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.” Dept Neurosurgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; Neurosurg Rev. Apr 30 2005; Quote: According to our results, beta-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation [free radical damage] in spinal cord injury.”

Staphylococcus aureus – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Staphyloccoccus,  Candida albicans and Infectious Challenge: Rice PJ, Adams EL, Ozment-Skelton T, Gonzales A, Goldman MP, Lockhart BE, Barker LA, Breuel KF, Deponti WK, Kalbfleisch JH, Ensley HE, Brown GD, Gordon S, Williams DL.; “Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.” East Tennessee State University. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Jun 23, 2005. Quote: ”Oral glucan administration also increased survival in mice challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans …[and] increase[s] IL-12 expression and induce[s] protection against infectious challenge.”

Staphylococcus aureus: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote: “Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.  These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections."

Staphylococcus aureus: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Stem Cell Transplantation: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Streptococcus – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Stress: Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Stress – Physical or Emotional: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: Professional and amateur athletes as well as people who work outdoors intensively. People under physical or emotional stress”

Structure – Beta Glucan and Immune System: Czop J.K., Gurish M.F., Kadish J.L., Production and Isolation of Rabbit Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Directed Against the Human Monocyte Receptor for Yeast b-glucans. Journal of Immunology; 145:995-1001. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1990. Quote (p1): “Beta-Glucans with 1,3 and/or 1,6 linkages are the major structural components of yeasts and fungi and are pharmacologic agents in animals…The cell wall glucans of S. cerevisiae consist of two structurally distinct Beta-glucans: major components comprised of consecutively, 1,3-linked glucopyranosyl residues with small numbers of 1,6-linked branches, and minor components with consecutive 1,6-linkages and 1,3-branches.”

Structure – Macrophage: Goldman R., “Characteristics of the beta-glucan receptor of murine macrophages.” Exp. Cell Res. 174:481-490. 1988.

Structure – Skin: Stingl G., Katz S, Clement L, Green I., Shevach E.; “Immunologic Functions of Ia-Bearing Epidermal Langerhans Cells;” J. Immunology, Vol 121 n5: 2005-2013; 1978.

Structure – Skin: Thiers B, Maize J, Spicer S, Cantor A; “The effect of Aging and Chronic Sun Exposure on Human Langerhans Cell Populations;” J. Investigative Dermatology; Vol 82:223-226. 1984.

Structure: Deslanders, et al., “Triple-Helical Structure (1,3)-.beta.-D-Glucans”. Macromolecules 13: 1466-1471.  1980.

Structure: Donzis B.A.; Solubilized yeast glucan; U.S. Patent 5519009; 1996.

Structure: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan Preparation,”  U.S. Patent 5622939. Issued April 22, 1997.*

Structure: Jones EW, Broach JR and Pringle JR; “The Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;” Gene Expression; Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. 1992.

Structure: Kapteyn J.C., Montijn R.C., et al; “Retention of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall proteins through a phosphodiester-linked beta-1,3/beta-1,6-glucan heteropolymer,” Glycobiology 6: 337-345. 1996.* Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, U of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Structure: Kollar R, Kapteyn J, et al; “Architecture of the yeast cell wall. Beta 1,6 glucan interconnects manoprotein, beta 1,3 glucan and chitin,” J Biol Chem, 272:28,17762-75. Jul 1997. 

Structure: Kopecka M.; “Electron  microscopic study of purified polysaccharide components glucans and mannan of the cell walls in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” J Basic Microbiol 25: 161-174. 1985.

Structure: Manners, D.J., et al., “The Structure of a .beta.-(1.fwdarw.3)-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls,” Biochem J.; 135: 19-30. 1973.

Structure: Mortimer RK, Contopoulou CR, King JS, “Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,”  Edition 11. Yeast 8:817-902. 1992.

Structure: Seljelid R, “The rediscovery of the macrophage,” APMIS Suppl 2:215-223. 1988.*

Structure: Seljelid R, Eskeland T, “The biology of macrophages: I. General principles and properties,” Eur J Haematol 51(5):267-275. Nov 1993.*

Structure: Spiros J., Rha C., Sinskey AJ; “Glucan compositions and process for preparation thereof,” U.S. Patent 4810646; Issued Mar 7, 1989.

Structure: Williams D.L. ,et al, “Development, Physicochemical Characterization and Preclinical Efficacy Evaluation of a Water Soluble Glucan Sulfate Derived from Saccharomyces cerrevisiae,” Immunopharmacology; 22:139-156. 1991.

 

Thermal Injury: Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "Thermal injury may lead to systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Tissue Damage - Oxidative Burn Injuries: Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Toxicity - Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: " ...The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer."

Transplantation - stem cells: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following [bone marrow] injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals. Researchers discovered beta-glucan enhances the proliferation of stem cells, promoting white blood cell recovery in bone marrow injury and repair.

Trauma: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis."

Trauma: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.  Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation. “

Trauma: Felippe J., Silva M., Maciel F.M., et al., Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator beta(1-3)glucan 1-3 polyglucose (glucan).  Surg. Gynecol Obstet., 177: 3833-388. 1993.

Trauma: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993. Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Trypanosoma Cruizi: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar.  11:403-410. 1989.

Tuberculosis: Hetland G, Sandven P; "Beta-1,3-Glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophage cultures," FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 25;33(1):41-5. Mar 2002. Quote: "The results indicate that beta-glucans inhibit growth of M. tuberculosis in host cells in vitro, probably due to cellular stimulation and/or competitive inhibition of uptake of bacteria via CR3 (CD11b/18)."

Tumor necrosis factorSteadman R., Petersen M.M., et al; “Differential augmentation by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha of neutrophil responses to particulate zymosan and glucan,” J. Immunol 144: 2712-2718. 1990.

Tumorigenesis: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis [formation or production of tumors]."

Tumors: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; "Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate." Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23 2011: "B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. ...Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages....Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro.  Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression."

Tumors: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; "Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans," Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem, Jun 7 2011.  PMID 21609131. Quote: "The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing."

Tumors: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; "Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy." Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy...Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. ...It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients."

Tumors: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. ...tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Tumors: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Tumors: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; "Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice," J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: "Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. ...Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy."

Tumors - Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.

Tumors - Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, "Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer." Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005. Quote: "Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients."

Tumors: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, "Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models," The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: "Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies]."

Tumors: Ross G, Hong F, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Ostroff G; "Mechanism of Tumor Regression Stimulated by Yeast Beta Glucan Dietary Supplement." Abstract. April 9, 2003. Quote: "The mechanism of B-glucan enhancement of tumor mAb immunotherapy involves the activation of the innate immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) via the lectin binding site on CR3 to target and kill Ab opsonized tumor cells.  Oral yeast B-glucan is orally absorbed and transported by macrophages into immune tissues and tumors resulting in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and soluble B-glucan leading to an enhanced innate immune cell attack against tumor cells."

Tumors: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose."

Tumors: Cheung NK, Modak S, Vickers A, Knuckles B; "Orally administered beta-glucans enhance anti-tumor effects of monoclonal antibodies," Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy ;51(10):557-64. Dec 2002. Quote: "We studied readily available (1-->3)-beta- D-glucan using the immune deficient xenograft tumor models, and examined the relationship of its anti-tumor effect .... Given the favorable efficacy and toxicity profile of oral beta- D-glucan treatment, the role of natural products that contain beta-glucan in cancer treatment as an enhancer of the effect of mAb therapy deserves further study."

Tumors: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Tumors: Brown G D, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Tumors : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; "Clinical experiences with the use of glucan." Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Tumors – Regression: Seljelid R, “A water-soluble aminated beta 1-3D-glucan derivative causes regression of solid tumors in mice,” Biosci Rep 6(9):845-851. Sep 1986.* Quote: “When water-soluble aminated beta 1,-D-glucan (AG) was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally on day 7 of tumor growth, the tumors underwent complete regression.”

Tumors - Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body. 

Tumors:  Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumour cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabeled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Hoffman E.D., “Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to experimental tumors.” Prog. Cancer  Therapy, 2: 475-499. 1977.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., McNamee R.B., Wiliams D.L., Gilbert K.M., Spanjers M.A., “Glucan induced inhibition of tumor growth and enhancement of survival in a variety of transplantable and spontaneous murine turmor models;” Adv Exp Med Biol 121A:269-290, 1980.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibotory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.* Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Tumors: Fukase S, Inoue T, Arai S, Sendo F; “Tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in beige mice: linkage of high responsiveness to linear beta-1,3-D-glucan with the beige gene.” Cancer Res. 47:4842-4847. 1987.

Tumors: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: “Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Tumors: Kasai, S., Fujimoto S., Nitta K., Baba H., Kunimoto T., “Antitumor activity of polymorphonuclear leukcytes activated by a B-1,3-D-glucan”.  J. Pharmacobiodyn.  14:519-525. Medline.

Tumors: Mansell P.W.A. and DiLuzio N.R., “The in vivo destruction of human tumor by glucan activated macrophages. Macrophage in Neoplasia Fink, ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 227-243. 1976.

Tumors: Morikawa K., Takeda M., Yamazaki, M., and Mizuno D., “Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear B-1,3-D-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells”. Cancer Res., 45: 1496-1501. (Medline).

Tumors: Proctor J.W., Stiteler R.D., Yamamura Y., Mansell P.W., Winters R., “Effect of glucan and other adjuvants on the clearance of radiolabeled tumor cells from mouse lungs”, Cancer Treat. Rep. ^2 (11): 1873-1880. (1978).

Tumors: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Tumors: Scholtz R.M., et al; “Association of macrophage activation with antitumor activity by synthetic and biological agents.” Cancer Res., 37:3338-33343. 1977.

Tumors: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Tumors: Seljelid R, “Tumour regression after treatment with aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose is initiated by circulatory failure,” Scand J Immunol 29(2): 181-192; Feb 1989.*

Tumors: Seljelid R, Busund LT, “The biology of macrophages: II. Inflammation and tumors,” Eur J Haematol 52(1): 1-12. Jan 1994.*  Dept of Exp Pathol, Inst of Med Biol, U of Tromso, Norway.

Tumors: Yoshizawa, et al, “Effects of Natural Human Interleukin-6 on Thrombopoiesis and Tumor Progression in Tumor-Bearing Mice”, Cancer Letters; vol. 79, pp. 83-89. 1994.

Tumors – Pulminary Metastases: Penna C, Dean P, Nelson H (Dept of Surgery-Mayo Clinic); “Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody;” Int J Cancer, 65.3,377-82. Jan 1996. Quote: “In the established tumor model, beta glucan + Bispecific antibody (BsAb) reduced the incidence of s.c. tumors as compared with control…It also prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice compared with control. We conclude that T cells can be activated in vivo by beta glucan…”

 

Ulcers – Decubitus: Browder I.W., DiLuzio N.R., et al. “Enhanced Healing of Decubitus Ulcers by Topical Application of Particulate Glucan.” Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Summary. 1984.

Ulcers, Pressure – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: "Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life."

Ulcers - Venous: Medeiros SD et al; "Effects of Purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1-3)-B-Glucan on Venous Ulcer Healing;"  Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias Ave., Petrópolis, Natal, RN 59012-570, Brazil; 2012;13(7):8142-58. Epub 2012 Jul 2. Quote: "The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysis after 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing."

Venous Ulcers: See Ulcers - Venous

Viral – See also Infections

Viral - staphylococcal mastitis : Buddle BM, et al, “Protective effect of glucan against experimentally induced staphylococcal mastitis in ewes.” Vet Microbiol 16(1): 67-76, Jan 1988.

Viral Diseases: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Viral Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; “Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients.” Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent  macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.“

Viral Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Viral Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986. Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens.

Viral Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Viral Pathogens: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan [micronized glucan insoluble particulate] has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms [viral, bacterial, fungal, etc.] that cause infectious disease…Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Visceral LeishmaniasisCook J.A., et al, “Protective Effect of Glucan Against Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters”.  Immun.; 37: 1261-1269. 1982.

 

White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Wound Healing – See also Ulcers

Wound Healing: Medeiros SD et al; "Effects of Purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1-3)-B-Glucan on Venous Ulcer Healing;"  Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias Ave., Petrópolis, Natal, RN 59012-570, Brazil; 2012;13(7):8142-58. Epub 2012 Jul 2. Quote: "The effects of the glucan on wound healing were assessed in human venous ulcers by histopathological analysis after 30 days of topical treatment. (1→3)-β-glucan enhanced ulcer healing and increased epithelial hyperplasia, as well as increased inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. In one patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, glucan treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer. This is the first study to investigate the effects of (1→3)-β-glucan on venous ulcer healing in humans; our findings suggest that this glucan is a potential natural biological response modifier in wound healing."

Wound Healing: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis."

Wound  Healing: Browder IW., Williams D., Lucor P., Pretus H., McNamee R., Jones E., “Effect of enhanced macrophage function on early wound healing,” Surgery, 104:224-230,  1988.

Wound Healing: Kaplan J.; “Acceleration of Wound Healing by a Live Yeast Cell Derivative”.  Archives and Surgery”, Sep. 1984; 119:1005-1008. 1984.

Wound Healing: Leibovich S.J., et al., “Promotion of Wound Repair in Mice by Application of Glucan”.  J. Reticuloendothel, Soc. 27: 1-11. 1980. Quote: “Of all the substances tested, glucan was the only substance to exhibit a particularly marked enhancement of the proliferative phase of wound healing.  It appears, from these experiments, that the effect observed by others in terms of the activation of reticuloendothelial [immune response] function by glucan and the activation of macrophages, both locally and systematically, also apply to activation of macrophages in healing wounds.”

Wound Healing: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; "Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans," Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem, Jun 7 2011.  PMID 21609131. Quote: "The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing."

Wound Healing: Portera CA, Love EJ, Memore L, Zhang L, Muller A, Browder W, Williams DL; “Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound,” Am Surg, 63:2,125-131. Feb 1997.  Quote: “…macrophage modulation with glucan phosphate will increase tensile strength in experimental colon and skin wounds. In addition, we have observed a positive correlation between glucan phosphate treatment, wound tensile strength, and collagen biosynthesis.”

Wound Healing: Williams D.L. ,Mueller A., Mueller P., Swails  W., et. al., “Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients”.  Ann. Surg.; 220(5):601-609. 1994.

Wound Healing: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

Wound Healing: Wolk, M. and Danon, D.; “Promotion of Wound Healing by Yeast Glucan Evaluated on Single Animals”; Medical Biology; 63:73-80. 1985.*

Yeast Infections – See Candida Albicans (Note:  While derived from yeast cell wall, Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is purified in extraction and contains no yeast proteins and thus in no way causes or aggravates Candida Albicans. 

Back to Top


The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation, the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker's yeast-derived beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a specially processed proprietary form of microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated purified Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not reaggregate after the digestive process.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan).

“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.  Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley, minimally effective in immune potentiation and not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.  Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations.

© Copyright 2001-2014 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

 



 
Hit Counter
 

 

Home ]
Copyright © 2014 Beta Glucan Research Organization
Last modified: 12/27/13