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Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"R" through "Z"

"Radiation" through "Yeast Infections" (including "Tuberculosis," "Tumors" and "Wound Healing")

Rabies:  Tino MS, Carieri ML et al; “Imunomodulatory effect of glucan on the response to experimental antirabies vaccination.” Rev. Insti. Med. Troop. Sao Paulo 35:431-435. 1993

Radiation – See also Chemotherapy and Cancer

Radiation - Allendorf D.J., Knudsen G., Elliott T., et al, "Oral Whole Glucan Particles Beta Glucan Treatment Accelerates Myeloid Recovery and Survival after Radiation Exposure." Center for Mind-Body Medicine Comprehensive Care Symposium, April 2003. Quote: "Oral treatment with whole glucan particles may be a useful therapeutic intervention following radiation exposure to accelerate myeloid [bone marrow] recovery and increase survival after radiation exposure."

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Vaudrain T, Correira H, Martin T, Reese D, “In vitro and in vivo hematopoietic activities of Betafectin PGG-glucan.”, Exp Hematol, 26(13):1247-54. Dec 1998.

Radiation: Patchen M.L; Mork AC, Helmke RJ, Martinez JR, Michalek MT, Zhang GH, “Effects of particulate and soluble(1,3)-beta glucans on Ca2+ influx in NR8383 alveolar macrophages,” Immunopharmacology, 40(1):77-89. Dept of Pediatrics, U of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Jul 1998. Quote: “Benefectin PGG-Glucan, a beta-(1,6) branched beta-(1,3) glucan purified from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to synergize the myeloid growth factors in vitro and to enhance hematopoietic recovery in myelosuppressed mice and primates. “

Radiation: Patchen M.L. [V Chrm, Dept of Surg, U of Washington], et al, “Mast Cell Growth Factor(c-kit Ligand) in Combination with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleulin-3: in vivo Hemopoietic effects in Irradiated Ice compared to in vivo effects”, Biotherapy; vol. 7. pp. 13-26. 1994.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Brook I, Elliott TB, Jackson WE, “Adverse effects of pefloxacin in irradiated C3H/HeN mice: correction with glucan therapy.”, Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy, Dept. of Experimental Hematology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) , Bethesda, Maryland, Sept. 1993.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Gallin EK, Green SW, “Comparative effects of particulate and soluble glucan on macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 14(2):173-83; Dept of Physiology, AFRRI, Feb 1992.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Quote: “Likewise, although both glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone enhanced survival following an 8-Gy radiation exposure, greatest survival was observed in mice treated with both agents. These studies suggest that glucan, a macrophage activator, can synergize the G-CSF to further accelerate hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] regeneration  and increase survival following radiation-induced myelosuppression [bone marrow suppression].”

Radiation: Patchen M.L.; “Radioprotective effect of oral administration of beta-1,3-glucan,” Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD Research Report, 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Postirradiation glucan administration enhances the radioprotective effects of WR-2721. “Radiat. Res. 117:59-69. 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Bowers GJ, Hirsch EF, Fink MP, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res, 47(2):183-8. Edward F. Hebert S of Medicine. Aug 1989.

Radiation: Patchen Ml, Chirigos MA, Brook I, “Use of glucan and other immunopharmacological agents in the prevention and treatment of acute radiation injuries,” Fundam Appl Toxicol, 11(4):573-4. AFRRI, Nov 1988.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987.

Quote: “These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate [convey] its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery. …glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize [ingest] and sequester [store] glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan’s scavenging ability is also suggested.”

Radiation: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986.

Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit [% of volume of packed red blood cells in a blood sample] values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; “Stimulated Hemopeiesis and Enhanced Survival Following Glucan Treatment in Sublethally and Lethally Irradiated Mice”. Int. J. Immunopharmac; 7: 923-932. 1985.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Wathen L; “Effects of pre- and post-irradiation glucan treatment on pluripotent stem cells, granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells and hemopoietic stromal cells.” Experientia. 40:1240-1244. 1984.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, MacVittie T.J.,”Dose-dependent responses of murine pluripotent stem cells and myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells following administration of immunomodulating agent glucan.” Immunopharmacology, 5(4):303-13, Apr 1983.

Quote: “The hemopoietic effects produced by six different doses of a commercially available glucan preparation were investigated….bone marrow pluripotent stem cells (CFU-s) content increased…In the spleen, all aspects of hemopoiesis [formation of blood cells] increased after glucan administration.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983.

Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation."

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Radiation - White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P[articulate] and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”.  Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.

Radiation: Hemopoietic Regeneration: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Respiratory: Jorgensen J.B., Robertsen B.; “Yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) macrophages,” Dev Comp Immunol 19: 43-57. 1995.*

Rheumatoid Arthritis – See Auto-Immune Disorders

 

Safety – FDA Classification: Carrow, D.J. MD; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Beta 1,3-glucan is a safe and potent nutritional supplement with a profound systemic effect that can be described as nonspecific immune stimulation combined with its free radical scavenging activity. Remember, beta 1,3-glucan is generally recognized as safe (category GRAS, according to FDA) and has no known toxicity or side effects.”

Safety – FDA: Federal Drug Administration, “Appendix A Food Additives,” Yeast extract (Bakers) – FL/ADJ, GRAS, See Specs 184.1983. Washington DC. http://www.fda.gov   1997.

Safety: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Pre-clinical Safety Evaluation of Soluble Glucan”, Int. J. Immunophamac. Vol. 10, No. 4: 405-414.  Dept of Phys, Tulane U Sch of Med, New Orleans, LA.  1988. Quote: “Soluble glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose biological response modifier, is effective in the therapy of experimental neoplasia, infectious diseases and immune suppression.”

Sarcoma – See Cancer also

Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Sarcoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Sepsis-Intraabdominal: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intra-abdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan)," J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998. Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”

Pneumonia: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Sepsis Associated Lung Damage - Sepsis: Babayigit H, Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Yazici C, Kose K, Akgun H.; Protective effect of beta-glucan on lung injury after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.” Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey; Intensive Care Med. (6):865-70; Jun 31, 2005. Quote: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis beta-glucan treatment partially protected against secondary lung injury, decreased lung hemorrhages, and lung neutrophilia. These results suggest that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-associated lung damage.”

Septic Shock: Williams D.L. ,et al; “The role of complement in glucan-induced protection against septic shock.” Circ. Shock. 25:53-60. 1988

Serum Glucose Control: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose."

Skin Damage: Donzis B.A.; Photoprotective composition containing yeast extract; U.S. Patent 5397773; 1995.

Skin Regeneration: Vacher, A M; "Cosmetic composition which includes at least one polysaccharide derived from bacteria of hydrothermal origin," U.S. Patent Application 20020187167, December 12, 2002. Quote: "It was shown, for example, that a .beta-glucan which was extracted from the wall of a yeast, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabled skin to regenerate."

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; "beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997.

Skin Revitalization: Donzis B.A.; Method of revitalizing skin by applying topically water insoluble glucan; U.S. Patent 5223491; 1993.

Skin: Ber L., “The Skin Connection;” Natures Impact, Dec 1997. Quote: "The effect of a cosmetic regimen containing beta-1,3-glucan on the signs of aging in the skin was evaluated in 150 women, ages 35 to 60. A 27 percent improvement in skin hydration was observed after eight weeks of using the regimen twice a day. A measurable improvement in lines and wrinkles at the end of the study reached 47 percent, firmness and elasticity increased by 60 percent and skin color improved by 26 percent."

Skin: Katz S.; “The skin as an Immunologic Organ,” National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD – J. Am. Academy of Dermatology; Vol 13:3; 530-536; 1985.

Skin: Murphy G, Messadi D, Fonterko E, Hancock W; “Phenotypic Transformation of Macrophages to Langerhans Cells in the skin;” Am. J. Pathology; Vol 123:401-406. 1986.

Small Particle Size Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Spinal Cord Injury:  Kayali H, Ozdag MF, Kahraman S, Aydin A, Gonul E, Sayal A, Odabasi Z, Timurkaynak E.; The antioxidant effect of beta-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.” Dept Neurosurgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; Neurosurg Rev. Apr 30 2005; Quote: According to our results, beta-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation [free radical damage] in spinal cord injury.”

Staphylococcus aureus – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Staphyloccoccus,  Candida albicans and Infectious Challenge: Rice PJ, Adams EL, Ozment-Skelton T, Gonzales A, Goldman MP, Lockhart BE, Barker LA, Breuel KF, Deponti WK, Kalbfleisch JH, Ensley HE, Brown GD, Gordon S, Williams DL.; “Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.” East Tennessee State University. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Jun 23, 2005. Quote: ”Oral glucan administration also increased survival in mice challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans …[and] increase[s] IL-12 expression and induce[s] protection against infectious challenge.”

Staphylococcus aureus: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote: “Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.  These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections."

Staphylococcus aureus: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Streptococcus – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Stress – Physical or Emotional: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: Professional and amateur athletes as well as people who work outdoors intensively. People under physical or emotional stress”

Structure – Beta Glucan and Immune System: Czop J.K., Gurish M.F., Kadish J.L., Production and Isolation of Rabbit Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Directed Against the Human Monocyte Receptor for Yeast b-glucans. Journal of Immunology; 145:995-1001. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1990. Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3 and/or 1,6 linkages are the major structural components of yeasts and fungi and are pharmacologic agents in animals…The cell wall glucans of S. cerevisiae consist of two structurally distinct Beta-glucans: major components comprised of consecutively, 1,3-linked glucopyranosyl residues with small numbers of 1,6-linked branches, and minor components with consecutive 1,6-linkages and 1,3-branches.”

Structure – Macrophage: Goldman R., “Characteristics of the beta-glucan receptor of murine macrophages.” Exp. Cell Res. 174:481-490. 1988.

Structure – Skin: Stingl G., Katz S, Clement L, Green I., Shevach E.; “Immunologic Functions of Ia-Bearing Epidermal Langerhans Cells;” J. Immunology, Vol 121 n5: 2005-2013; 1978.

Structure – Skin: Thiers B, Maize J, Spicer S, Cantor A; “The effect of Aging and Chronic Sun Exposure on Human Langerhans Cell Populations;” J. Investigative Dermatology; Vol 82:223-226. 1984.

Structure: Deslanders, et al., “Triple-Helical Structure (1,3)-.beta.-D-Glucans”. Macromolecules 13: 1466-1471.  1980.

Structure: Donzis B.A.; Solubilized yeast glucan; U.S. Patent 5519009; 1996.

Structure: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan Preparation,”  U.S. Patent 5622939. Issued April 22, 1997.*

Structure: Jones EW, Broach JR and Pringle JR; “The Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;” Gene Expression; Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. 1992.

Structure: Kapteyn J.C., Montijn R.C., et al; “Retention of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall proteins through a phosphodiester-linked beta-1,3/beta-1,6-glucan heteropolymer,” Glycobiology 6: 337-345. 1996.* Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, U of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Structure: Kollar R, Kapteyn J, et al; “Architecture of the yeast cell wall. Beta 1,6 glucan interconnects manoprotein, beta 1,3 glucan and chitin,” J Biol Chem, 272:28,17762-75. Jul 1997. 

Structure: Kopecka M.; “Electron  microscopic study of purified polysaccharide components glucans and mannan of the cell walls in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” J Basic Microbiol 25: 161-174. 1985.

Structure: Manners, D.J., et al., “The Structure of a .beta.-(1.fwdarw.3)-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls,” Biochem J.; 135: 19-30. 1973.

Structure: Mortimer RK, Contopoulou CR, King JS, “Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,”  Edition 11. Yeast 8:817-902. 1992.

Structure: Seljelid R, “The rediscovery of the macrophage,” APMIS Suppl 2:215-223. 1988.*

Structure: Seljelid R, Eskeland T, “The biology of macrophages: I. General principles and properties,” Eur J Haematol 51(5):267-275. Nov 1993.*

Structure: Spiros J., Rha C., Sinskey AJ; “Glucan compositions and process for preparation thereof,” U.S. Patent 4810646; Issued Mar 7, 1989.

Structure: Williams D.L. ,et al, “Development, Physicochemical Characterization and Preclinical Efficacy Evaluation of a Water Soluble Glucan Sulfate Derived from Saccharomyces cerrevisiae,” Immunopharmacology; 22:139-156. 1991.

 

Trauma: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis."

Trauma: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.  Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation. “

Trauma: Felippe J., Silva M., Maciel F.M., et al., Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator beta(1-3)glucan 1-3 polyglucose (glucan).  Surg. Gynecol Obstet., 177: 3833-388. 1993.

Trauma: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993. Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Trypanosoma Cruizi: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar.  11:403-410. 1989.

Tuberculosis: Hetland G, Sandven P; "Beta-1,3-Glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophage cultures," FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 25;33(1):41-5. Mar 2002. Quote: "The results indicate that beta-glucans inhibit growth of M. tuberculosis in host cells in vitro, probably due to cellular stimulation and/or competitive inhibition of uptake of bacteria via CR3 (CD11b/18)."

Tumor necrosis factorSteadman R., Petersen M.M., et al; “Differential augmentation by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha of neutrophil responses to particulate zymosan and glucan,” J. Immunol 144: 2712-2718. 1990.

Tumorigenesis: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis."

Tumors: Allendorf D, Ross D, et al; "C5a-Mediated Leukotriene B4-Amplified Neutrophil Chemotaxis Is Essential in Tumor Immunotherapy Facilitated by Anti-Tumor Monoclonal Antibody and B-Glucan." J Immunol 174: 7050-7056. 2005. Quote: "Intravenous and orally administered B-glucans promote tumor regression and survival by priming granulocyte [neutrophils etc] and macrophage C receptor 3 (CR3, iC3bR and CD11b/CD18) to trigger the cytotoxicity of tumor cells opsonized with iC3b via anti-tumor Abs [monoclonal antibodies]. ..."

Tumors: Yan J, Allendorf D, Brandley B; "Yeast Whole Glucan Particle ß-Glucan in Conjunction with Antitumour Monoclonal Antibodies to Treat Cancer;"  Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, Vol 5 No 5, 691-702, May 2005. Quote: "Beta-glucans, biological response modifiers (BRMs) derived from the cell walls of yeast and other sources, have been demonstrated to prime leukocyte complement receptor 3 (CR3), thus enabling these cells to kill tumours opsonised [to make more susceptible] with complement fragment iC3b. ..."

Tumors: Ross G, Hong F, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Ostroff G; "Mechanism of Tumor Regression Stimulated by Yeast Beta Glucan Dietary Supplement." Abstract. April 9, 2003. Quote: "The mechanism of B-glucan enhancement of tumor mAb immunotherapy involves the activation of the innate immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) via the lectin binding site on CR3 to target and kill Ab opsonized tumor cells.  Oral yeast B-glucan is orally absorbed and transported by macrophages into immune tissues and tumors resulting in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and soluble B-glucan leading to an enhanced innate immune cell attack against tumor cells."

Tumors: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. Quote: ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose."

Tumors: Cheung NK, Modak S, Vickers A, Knuckles B; "Orally administered beta-glucans enhance anti-tumor effects of monoclonal antibodies," Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy ;51(10):557-64. Dec 2002. Quote: "We studied readily available (1-->3)-beta- D-glucan using the immune deficient xenograft tumor models, and examined the relationship of its anti-tumor effect .... Given the favorable efficacy and toxicity profile of oral beta- D-glucan treatment, the role of natural products that contain beta-glucan in cancer treatment as an enhancer of the effect of mAb therapy deserves further study."

Tumors: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Tumors: Brown G D, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Tumors: Yan, J., V. Vetvicka, Y. Xia, A. Coxon, M.C. Carroll, T.N. Mayadas, and G.D. Ross; “B-glucan, a 'specific' biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18).” J. Immunol., 163: 3045-3052, 1999.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans were identified 36 years ago as a biologic response modifier that stimulated tumor rejection.”

Tumors : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; "Clinical experiences with the use of glucan." Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Tumors – Regression: Seljelid R, “A water-soluble aminated beta 1-3D-glucan derivative causes regression of solid tumors in mice,” Biosci Rep 6(9):845-851. Sep 1986.* Quote: “When water-soluble aminated beta 1,-D-glucan (AG) was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally on day 7 of tumor growth, the tumors underwent complete regression.”

Tumors - Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body. 

Tumors:  Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumour cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabeled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Hoffman E.D., “Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to experimental tumors.” Prog. Cancer  Therapy, 2: 475-499. 1977.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., McNamee R.B., Wiliams D.L., Gilbert K.M., Spanjers M.A., “Glucan induced inhibition of tumor growth and enhancement of survival in a variety of transplantable and spontaneous murine turmor models;” Adv Exp Med Biol 121A:269-290, 1980.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibotory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.* Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Tumors: Fukase S, Inoue T, Arai S, Sendo F; “Tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in beige mice: linkage of high responsiveness to linear beta-1,3-D-glucan with the beige gene.” Cancer Res. 47:4842-4847. 1987.

Tumors: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: “Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Tumors: Kasai, S., Fujimoto S., Nitta K., Baba H., Kunimoto T., “Antitumor activity of polymorphonuclear leukcytes activated by a B-1,3-D-glucan”.  J. Pharmacobiodyn.  14:519-525. Medline.

Tumors: Mansell P.W.A. and DiLuzio N.R., “The in vivo destruction of human tumor by glucan activated macrophages. Macrophage in Neoplasia Fink, ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 227-243. 1976.

Tumors: Morikawa K., Takeda M., Yamazaki, M., and Mizuno D., “Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear B-1,3-D-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells”. Cancer Res., 45: 1496-1501. (Medline).

Tumors: Proctor J.W., Stiteler R.D., Yamamura Y., Mansell P.W., Winters R., “Effect of glucan and other adjuvants on the clearance of radiolabeled tumor cells from mouse lungs”, Cancer Treat. Rep. ^2 (11): 1873-1880. (1978).

Tumors: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Tumors: Scholtz R.M., et al; “Association of macrophage activation with antitumor activity by synthetic and biological agents.” Cancer Res., 37:3338-33343. 1977.

Tumors: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Tumors: Seljelid R, “Tumour regression after treatment with aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose is initiated by circulatory failure,” Scand J Immunol 29(2): 181-192; Feb 1989.*

Tumors: Seljelid R, Busund LT, “The biology of macrophages: II. Inflammation and tumors,” Eur J Haematol 52(1): 1-12. Jan 1994.*  Dept of Exp Pathol, Inst of Med Biol, U of Tromso, Norway.

Tumors: Yoshizawa, et al, “Effects of Natural Human Interleukin-6 on Thrombopoiesis and Tumor Progression in Tumor-Bearing Mice”, Cancer Letters; vol. 79, pp. 83-89. 1994.

Tumors – Pulminary Metastases: Penna C, Dean P, Nelson H (Dept of Surgery-Mayo Clinic); “Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody;” Int J Cancer, 65.3,377-82. Jan 1996. Quote: “In the established tumor model, beta glucan + Bispecific antibody (BsAb) reduced the incidence of s.c. tumors as compared with control…It also prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice compared with control. We conclude that T cells can be activated in vivo by beta glucan…”

 

Ulcers – Decubitus: Browder I.W., DiLuzio N.R., et al. “Enhanced Healing of Decubitus Ulcers by Topical Application of Particulate Glucan.” Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Summary. 1984.

 

Viral – See also Infections

Viral - staphylococcal mastitis : Buddle BM, et al, “Protective effect of glucan against experimentally induced staphylococcal mastitis in ewes.” Vet Microbiol 16(1): 67-76, Jan 1988.

Viral Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; “Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients.” Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent  macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases.“

Viral Infections: Vaclav Vetvicka, Frank Jamois, et al,  “Glucan-like synthetic oligosaccharides: iterative synthesis of linear oligo-_-(1,3)-glucans and immunostimulatory effects.”  Department of Pathology, University of Louisville;  Oxford University Press; Glycobiology vol. 15 no. 4 pp. 393–407, 2005.  Quote: …”Nevertheless, it is generally assumed that β-(1,3)-glucans are able to stimulate the nonspecific immune system against bacterial, viral, mycotic, and microparasitic infections as well as against malignant cell growth.”

Viral Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Viral Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986. Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens.

Viral Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,” Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Viral Pathogens: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan [micronized glucan insoluble particulate] has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms [viral, bacterial, fungal, etc.] that cause infectious disease…Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Visceral LeishmaniasisCook J.A., et al, “Protective Effect of Glucan Against Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters”.  Immun.; 37: 1261-1269. 1982.

 

White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Wound Healing – See also Ulcers

Wound Healing: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis."

Wound  Healing: Browder IW., Williams D., Lucor P., Pretus H., McNamee R., Jones E., “Effect of enhanced macrophage function on early wound healing,” Surgery, 104:224-230,  1988.

Wound Healing: Kaplan J.; “Acceleration of Wound Healing by a Live Yeast Cell Derivative”.  Archives and Surgery”, Sep. 1984; 119:1005-1008. 1984.

Wound Healing: Leibovich S.J., et al., “Promotion of Wound Repair in Mice by Application of Glucan”.  J. Reticuloendothel, Soc. 27: 1-11. 1980.

Quote: “Of all the substances tested, glucan was the only substance to exhibit a particularly marked enhancement of the proliferative phase of wound healing.  It appears, from these experiments, that the effect observed by others in terms of the activation of reticuloendothelial [immune response] function by glucan and the activation of macrophages, both locally and systematically, also apply to activation of macrophages in healing wounds.”

Wound Healing: Portera CA, Love EJ, Memore L, Zhang L, Muller A, Browder W, Williams DL; “Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound,” Am Surg, 63:2,125-131. Feb 1997.  Quote: “…macrophage modulation with glucan phosphate will increase tensile strength in experimental colon and skin wounds. In addition, we have observed a positive correlation between glucan phosphate treatment, wound tensile strength, and collagen biosynthesis.”

Wound Healing: Williams D.L. ,Mueller A., Mueller P., Swails  W., et. al., “Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients”.  Ann. Surg.; 220(5):601-609. 1994.

Wound Healing: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

Wound Healing: Wolk, M. and Danon, D.; “Promotion of Wound Healing by Yeast Glucan Evaluated on Single Animals”; Medical Biology; 63:73-80. 1985.*

Yeast Infections – See Candida Albicans (Note:  While derived from yeast cell wall, Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is purified in extraction and contains no yeast proteins and thus in no way causes or aggravates Candida Albicans. 

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization is a "not-for-profit" entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation (NSC-24 and NSC-100 Immunition™ Products), the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: MG Glucan is a proprietary form of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan processed to prevent reaggregation of the microparticulate insoluble particles which according to Medical School Research, enhances significantly the immune potentiation properties relative to globular or reaggregated glucans. Purified Beta 1,3-D glucan is a beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage and the molecule skewed to the right.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). “Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.

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