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Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"I" through "P"

"IL-1" through "Pulmonary" (including "Immune Response","Infection", "Particle Size" and  "Pneumonia")

IL 1 and TNF Alpha Production: Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Lett ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005, Quote:  …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]

IL 1 and TNF-µ Production :  Hunter K, Washburn R, “Efficacy of topical antimicrobial acid and immunostimulatory B-Glucan in Animal Models of Cutaneous Infection,” U Nevada Medical School-Applied Res Grant, Aug 1998.  Quote: “Our laboratory has developed preliminary evidence that B-1,3/1,6 glucans possesses immunostimulatory activity for macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of the Th-1 cytokines IL-1 B, IL-12, and TNF-µ.”

IL 1 Enhancement: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Production of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-glucan derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 26(6): 731-736. Dec 1987.*

IL-1 Enhancement: Poutsiaka D.D., et al, “Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production,” Blood 82: 3695-3700 ; Dept of Med, New England Med Ctr, Boston, MA. 1993. Quote: “Because of their differential effects on cytokine production, beta-glucans may be used to therapeutic advantage in the diseases in which IL-1 is implicated.”*

Immune response potentiation - Immune Response: Hunter KW Jr, Gault RA, Berner MD; "Preparation of microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation," Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Letters of Applied Microbiology 35(4) 267-71; 2002; PMD 12358685; [mu=micron] Quote: "... a homogeneous preparation of 1-2-mu diameter beta-glucan-containing particles was made from alkali- and acid-insoluble yeast cell wall material. This microparticulate beta-glucan remained in suspension longer and, following oral administration at 0.1 mg kg(-1) for 14 d, enhanced phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages significantly better than did aggregated beta-glucan particles. ... A microparticulate form of beta-glucan that remains in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and has superior immune potentiation characteristics has been developed. [0.1 mg kg(-1) = 7.5 mg per day for a 165 lb person].

Immune response potentiation: Goodridge HS, Reyes CN, Becker CA, Katsumoto TR, Ma J, Wolf AJ, Bose N, Chan AS, Magee AS, Danielson ME, Weiss A, Vasilakos JP, Underhill DM; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'," IBD and Immunobiolgy Research Institute, Available Oct 28, 2011. Quote: "The 'phagocytic synapse [of particulate B-glucan]...provides a...mechanism...thereby initiating direct cellular antimicrobial responses only when they are required."  Note: Particulate beta 1,3/1,6 glucan potentiates an immune response when a microbe is directly contacted, but does not stimulate an immune response indiscriminately.

Immune response potentiation: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; "Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity." Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003.  Quote: "B-Glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many fungi which possesses  immunomodulatory activities. ...The innate immune response is essential for the control of fungal infections, and there is increasing evidence that B-glucans are involved in initiating many aspects of this response.  The recognition of fungal pathogens occurs through both opsonic (mainly complement) and nonopsonic mechanisms, and as conserved structural components, B-glucans...play an important role in the non-opsonic recognition of these [fungal] pathogens. 

Indeed, many of the B-glucan receptors...have been shown to contribute to the recognition and phagocytosis of these organisms [fungal pathogens].  ... B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine... . Thus B-glucans appear to have an important role in the innate immune response to fungal pathogens and in initiating a protective adaptive response.

...particulate B-glucans can directly activate leukocytes, stimulating their phagocytic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities, including the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates.  In addition, these carbohydrates [B-glucans] stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines such as IL-8, IL1, IL-6 and TNF Alpha.  Stimulation by particulate B-glucans also enhances the ability of macrophages to recognize and clear  apoptotic [dying or dead] cells... ."

Immune response potentiation: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998. Quote: "… the size of a particle is one factor influencing phagocytic [microbe ingestion] efficiency by macrophages. …the number of macrophages actively phagocytosing [ingesting microbes] is affected by the particle size of the glucan.  This would suggest that, in vivo, a greater number of macrophages may be activated and thus would provide an enhanced immune response. …these data do indicate that glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes.  This would suggest that the small particle glucan [MG Glucan] has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”    

Immune response potentiation: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. ... The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage.

As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption.

... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Immune response potentiation: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan).                

Immune response potentiation: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Isolation of a Yeast Heptaglucoside that Inhibits Monocyte Phagocytosis  of Zymosan Particles”. The Journal of Immunology; 142:959-965. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1989.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3-and 1,6  glycosidic linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungal cell walls and are active pharmacologic agents in host defense systems of plants and animals….The administration of particulate glucans from S. cerevisiae to laboratory animals induces host resistance to a variety of lethal pathogens by mechanisms involving macrophage stimulation.“

Immune response – Activation of White Blood Cells: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of .beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research;

Immune response – Activation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F., A B-glucan Inhibitable Receptor on Human Monocytes: Its Identity with the Phagocytic Receptor for Particular Activators of the Alternative Complement Pathway. Journal of Immunology 134: 1985;  2588-2593. 1985.* (copy available)

Immune Response – Immune T Cells Enhancement: Lotzova and Gutterman,  “Effect of Glucan on Natural Killer (NK) Cells: Further Comparison Between NK Cell and Bone Marrow Effector Cell Activities”. J. Immunol., 123: 607-611. 1979.

Immune Response – Increased Survival: Todd, R.F.; “The Continuing Saga of Complement Receptor Type 3 (CR3),” J. Clin Invest.: Vol 98, 1-2. 1996. Div of Hematology/Oncology Dept of Int. Med,  U of Michigan Med Ctr.* Quote: (p2) “In certain controlled clinical trials, the increased survival of patients receiving these immunostimulatory Beta-glucans has been reported.”

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase : Burgaleta, C. and Golde, D.W.; “Effect of Glucan on Granulopoiesis and Macrophage Genesis in Mice”.  Cancer Research;  37:1739-1742; Jun 1977.*

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase: Burgaleta C., Territo M.C., Quan C.G., Goide D.W.; Glucan activated macrophages: functional characteristics and surface morphology; J Reticuloendothel Soc 23: 195-204. 1978. Quote: “These studies indicate that glucan administration results in increased granulocyte and macrophage production….glucan as an immunotherapeutic agent can result in an increased number of available effector cells.”

Immune Response – Normalization: Chorvatovicova D., Navarova J., “Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.” Mutat. Res., 282:147-150, 1992.

Immune response – Normalization: Ferencik M, Kotulova D, Masler L, Bergendi, L, Sandula J, Stefanovic J; “Modulatory effect of glucans on the functional and biochemical activities of guinea-pig macrophages.” Methods Find. Exp., Clin. Pharmacol. 8:163-166. 1986.

Immune response - Particulate vs Soluble: Ishibashi K, Miura NN, et al, "Relationship between the physical properties of Candida albicans cell well beta-glucan and activation of leukocytes in vitro," Int Immunopharmacol 2(8):1109-22. Jul 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan activated leukocytes significantly more effectively in a particulate than solubilized form in terms of TNF-alpha production by RAW 264.7 cells, hydrogen peroxide production by murine PEC and IL-8 production by human PBMC....These facts strongly suggested that the solubility and assembly of the components influence the immunopharmacological activities of 1,3-beta-D-glucans."

Immune response – Potentiation: Czop, J.K., Valiante N.M., Janusz M.J.; “Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors,” Prog Clin Biol Res 297: 287-296; Dept of Med, Harvard Med S, Boston, MA. 1989. Quote (p1): “Animal studies indicate that beta-glucans with 1,3-and/or 1,6-linkages are active pharmacologic agents that rapidly confer protection to a normal host against a variety of biological insults. The beta-glucan receptors provide a mechanism by which a heightened state of host responsiveness is initiated.”

Immune response – Potentiation: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Fishcer GW, Sayles PC, Strictkland GT; “Levamisole: Potentiation of the primary immunoglobulin M antibody response in suckling rats.;” Immunopharmacology 3:117-127; 1981.

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan). Quote: "...there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range."

"Compared with the aggregated form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles ... are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. Although both aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] and microparticulate [1-2-µ micron diameter] glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form."

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

 

Globular Glucan (μg/ml)

Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml)

Media

Nitric Oxide (μM)

 275

 600

 0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5705184; 1998.

Immune Response – Stimulation: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “Evaluation of the Mechanism of Glucan-Induced Stimulation of the Reticuloendothelial System”.  J. Reticuloendothelial Soc.; Soc.7: 731-742. 1970.

Immune Response – T Cell Enhancement: Di Renzo, L., Yefenof, E., Klein E., “The Function of human NK [Killer T] cells is enhanced by B-Glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD18)”.  Eur. J. Immunol., 21:1755-1758. 1991.

Immune Response Enhancement  - IL 1 & IL 2: Sherwood. E.R., et al., “Enhancement of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-2 Production by Soluble Glucan,” International  Journal of Immunopharmacology.; 9:(3):261-267. 1987.

Immune Response Enhancement – IL 1: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Production of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-glucan derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 26(6): 731-736. Dec 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement – Oral Dietary Supplement:  Matthews, M.; “NSC-24 and NSC-100 – Exceptional Immune Enhancing Supplements,” Nutritional Supplement Immuno-Stimulant Bulletin, Vol I, No. 3. 1997.

Immune Response Enhancement : Spiros J.; Method for immune system activation by administration of a .beta.(1-3) glucan which is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain R4; U.S. Patent 5504079; 1996.

Immune Response Enhancement Seljelid R., et al., “A Soluble .beta.-1,3-Glucan Derivative Potentiates the Cytostatic and Cytolytic Capacity of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro”. Immunopharmacol; 7: 69-73. 1984.*

Immune Response Enhancement Vetvicka V., Thornton B.P., Ross G.D.; “Soluble Beta-glucan Polysaccharide Binding to the Lectin Site of Neutrophil or Natural Killer Cell Complement Receptor Type 3 (CD11b/CD18) Generates a Primed State of the Receptor Capable of Mediating Cytotoxicity of iC3b-Opsonized Target Cells,”. Journal Clin Invest 98: 50-61. Div of Experimental Immuno and Immunopath, Dept Path, U of Louisville, KY.* 1996.  Quote: “This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity.”

Immune Response Enhancement: - Oral Applications: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989.

Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Immune Response Enhancement: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Lysosomal enzyme release from human monocytes by particulate activators is mediated by beta-glucan inhibitable receptors,” J. Immunol 138: 3897-3901. 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Kimura A., et al., “In Vitro Activation of Human Adherent Cells by a Glucan, Schizophyllan”.  J. Reticuloendothel.; Soc. 34: 1-11. 1983. Quote: “…Glucan-treated rats had significantly increased rates of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus immediately after infection…”

Immune Response Enhancement: Meira, D.A., et al; The Use of Glucan as Immunostimulant in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis; Am J. Trop Med Hyg 55(5), 496-503; 1996. Dept of Trop Dis, Dept of Microbio, State U of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Quote: “…glucan enhances the immune response through stimulation of macrophages by increasing their number, size, and function, stimulates secretion of lysozyme and TNF by activated macrophages, increases the phagocytosis of antigens, activates the formation of granulocyte and monocyte colonies, and factors increased activity of T and B lymphocytes, as well as complement activation."

Immune Response Enhancement: Poutsiaka D.D., et al, “Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production,” Blood 82: 3695-3700 ; 1993. Dept of Med, New England Med Ctr, Boston, MA. Quote: “Because of their differential effects on cytokine production, beta-glucans may be used to therapeutic advantage in the diseases in which IL-1 is implicated.”*

Immune Response Enhancement: Rios-Hernandez M., Dos-Santos N.J., Silvia-Cardosa, Belle-Garciga J.L., Peddrosa M., “Immunopharamacological studies of beta(1-3)glucan-1, 3-glucan”, Arch. Med. Res. 25 (2): 179-180.  1994.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Sakurai T, Hashimoto K, et al; “Enhancement of murine alveolar macrophage functions by orally administered beta-glucan.” Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 14:821-830. 1992.

Immune Response Enhancement: Seljelid R., et al.,”In vivo activation of mouse macrophages with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 21(6):601-605. Jun 1985.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Suzuki, Iwao, Tanaka, Hideki, Konoshita, Akira, Oikawa, Shozo, Osawa, Masumi and Yadomae.  “Effects of Orally Administered.beta.-Glucan on Macrophage Function in Mice”.  Toshiro, Journal of Immunopharmac; vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 675-684. 1990.

Immune Response Enhancement: Wooles and DiLuzio N.R.; “The Phagocytic and Proleferative Responses of the Reticuloendothelial System Following Glucan Administration”.  J. Reticuloendothelial..; Soc. 1: 169-169. 1964.

Immune Response Potentiation – B Cells: Czop J.K., Puglisi A.V., Miorandi D.Z., Austen K.F.; “Pertubation of beta-glucan receptors on human neutrophils initiates phagocytosis and leukotriene B4 production,” J. Immunol 141: 3170-3176. 1988.*

Immune Response Potentiator: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Immune Response: Bodenbach B.; NSC-24™: An Extraordinary New Immune Enhancing Supplement; Health Perspectives, vol 2, no 2; 1996.

Immune Response: Bousquet M., Escoula L. et al; “Immunopharmacologic study in mice of 2 beta-1,3, beta-1,6 polysaccharides (scleroglucan and PSAT) on the activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes,” Ann Rech Vet 20: 165-173. 1989. Station of Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, INRA, Toulouse, France.* Quote: “…PSAT and scleroglucan favorably affect the non-specific host defense and cellular immune response in mice.”

Immune response: Macrophage stimulation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F.; “Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes upon stimulation of their beta-glucan receptor during phagocytosis,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 82: 2751-2755 1985.*

Immune System: Ber L., Gazella K., “Activate Your Immune System;” Impakt Communications, 1998.

Immunizations - Adjuvant: Hunter KW Jr, Berner VK, Sura ME; "Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations," Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, U of Nev Sch of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; PuMed 18677470; Epub Aug 2, 2008: Quote: "Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG)...we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. ...When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund's adjuvant....These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carabondiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens."

Impaired Immunity: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause including, but not limited to HIV infection; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

In vitro studies reveal that bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes possess Beta-glucan receptors that mediate phagocytosis of glucan particles and induce release of proinflammatory mediators…”

Infection: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; "Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans," Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem, Jun 7 2011.  PMID 21609131. Quote: "The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing."

Infection: Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Infection: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Infection - intrauterine: Singh U, Nicholson G, et al; "Immunological properties of human decidual macrophages - a possible role in intrauterine immunity," Reproduction;129(5):631-7,  Nuffield Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, U of Oxford, UK; May 2005. Quote: "These results suggest a role for decidual (uterine mucous wall) macrophages in pathogen recognition and clearance during pregnancy, and, therefore, they are likely to protect the fetus against intrauterine infections which might otherwise lead to preterm labour."   Note: Beta 1,3/1,6-d glucan potentiates the macrophage immune cells and is referenced in the complete study.

Infections - secondary: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; "Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice," J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: "Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. ...Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy."

Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Infection – Abdominal: Bowers GJ, Patchen ML, et al, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res 47(2): 183-188; Aug 1989.*

Infection-M bovis,BCG: Hetland G, Wiker H, “Protective effect of beta-glucan against mycobacterium bovis, BCG infection in BALB/c mice.” Scand J Immunol, 47:6, 548-53, Jun 1998.  Quote: “Beta 1,3-glucan is a potent stimulator of macrophage functions and has a protective effect against a range of infections in rodent models.”

Infection – Diseases: Reynolds J.A., et al., “Glucan-Induced Enhancement of Host Resistance to Selected Infectious Diseases”, Infection and Immunity; 30, 51. 1980.*

Infection - Escherichia coli : Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Infection – Microbial: Raa J., Roerstad G., Engstad R., Robertsen B., “The Use of Immunostimulants to Increase Resistance of Aquatic Organisms to Microbial Infection”. J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol., (1989) 15:1199-1202. 1989.

Infection – Multiple Trauma: De Felippe Junior, et al. ”Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator eta 1-3 polyglucose (glucan).” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics; 177(4):383-388. 1993.

Infection – Oral Tissue: Ostroff, G.R.; “Inhibition of infection-stimulated oral tissue destruction by .beta(1-3)glucan.(1,3)-glucan,” U.S. Patent 5622940.  Issued April 22, 1997.

Infection - Periapical Bone Resorption : Stashenko, et al., “Reduction of Infection-Stimulated Periapical Bone Resorption by the Biological Response Modifier PGG Glucan”, J. Dent. Res.; 74(1):323-330; Dept of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Dental Ctr, Boston, MA. 1995.* Quote: “PGG glucan-treated animals had significantly less infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption than control animals…”

Infection - Plasmodium Benghei : Holbrook T.W., et al., “Glucan-Enhanced Immunogenicity of Killed Erythrocylic Stages of Plasmodium Benghei”;  Infection and Immunity, 32, 542. 1981.

Infection - Postplenectomy : Browder IW.,et al., “Protective Effect of Nonspecific Immunostimulation in Post Splenectomy Sepis”.  J. Surg. Res.; 35: 474-479. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA. 1983. * Quote: “This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyclucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis.  …Nonspecific immunostimulation appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.”

Infection - Prevention: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Infection - Staphylococcus Aureus : DiLuzio N.R., Williams DL; “Enhancement of host susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection by chronic ethanol ingestion—modification by glucan immunostimulation,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 4(3): 254-260. Jul 1980.* Quote: “The administration of glucan significantly prolonged survival of S. Aureus infected control and chronic ethanol mice.”

Infection - Staphylococcus aureus: Kimura A., et al., “In Vitro Activation of Human Adherent Cells by a Glucan, Schizophyllan”.  J. Reticuloendothel.; Soc. 34: 1-11. 1983. Quote: “…Glucan-treated rats had significantly increased rates of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus immediately after infection…”

Infection – Staphylococcus: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L., “Glucan-Induced Modification of the Increases Susceptibility of Cyclophosphamide-Treated Mice to Staphylococcus aureus Infection”.  Cancer Immunol. Immunother.; 6: 73-79. 1979.

Infection - Staphylococcus: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibotory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.*  Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Infection – Staphyloccus: Dernodle D, Gates H, Kaiser A, “Prophylactic anti-infective activity of poly-[1,6]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,3]-beta-D-glucopryanose glucan in a guinea pig model of staphylococcal wound infection,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42:3,545-9. Mar 1998. Quote: “…glucan reduces the risk of staphylococcal abscess formation. Neutrophil-activating agents [glucan] are a novel means of prophylaxis against surgical infection and may be less likely than antibiotics to be affected adversely by the increasing antibiotic resistance of nosocomial pathogens.”

Infection - Streptococcus : Mansell P.W.A., et al., Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Water-Insoluble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies”. Macrophage-Mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells In Vitro; Inai et al., J. Immunol (1976); 1256-1260. 1976.

Infection - Streptococcus mutans:  Inai et al., “Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway By Water-Insoluble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies.”  J. Immunol.; 117” 1256-1260. 1976.

Infection – Viral: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Infection: Bacterial: Franek J, Malina J, Kratka H, “Bacterial infection modulated by glucan: a search for the host defense potentiation mechanisms,” Folia Microbiol (Praha) 37(2): 146-152. 1992.*

Infection-Post Surgery: Babineau, et al., “Randomized Phase I/II Trial of a Macrophage-Specific Immunomodulator (PGG-Glucan) in High Risk Surgical Patients”, Annals of Surgery; 220:(5):601-609. 1994. Dept of Surgery, Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical Sch, Boston MA.* Quote: “PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery.”*

Infections - Bacterial: Kokoshis P.L., Williams D.L., Cook J.A., Di Luzio N.R.; Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Science 199: 1340-1342, 1978.*  Quote: “These studies indicate that glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections.”

Infections – Bacterial: Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R.: “Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release”, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry; 46:60-68. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1991.* Quote: “Beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives protect mice against otherwise lethal bacterial infections.”

Infections – Bacterial: Wang W., Duen-Horng W., et al; “Polysaccharide-Induced protection of Tilapia, Tilapia aureus P., against Bacterial Infections in vivo,” Dept of Veterinary Medicine.

Infections – Disease: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: “Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Infections – Surgical Procedures: Norton MD, JA [Prof of Surg, Chief of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery]; “Editorial: Annals of Surgery,” Washington University School of Medicine, Nov 1994. Quote: “In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, [Babineau, et.al.] demonstrate that the perioperative administration of PGG-glucan, a substance derived from yeast that increases the microbial killing activity of leukocytes, can decrease infectious complications in patients undergoing major surgical procedures…the preliminary results are positive and should be interpreted as good news.”

Injury (from irradiation): Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.” NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Injury: See Thermal Injury also.

Insulitis: Kida K, Inoue T, Kaino Y, Goto Y, Ikeuchi M, Ito T, Matsuda H, Elliott RB. "An immunopotentiator of beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan prevents diabetes and insulitis in BB rats."  Dept of Pediatrics, Ehime U Sch of Med, Japan; Diabetes Res Clin Pract 17(2):75-9, PMID 1425150; Aug 1992. Quote: "The intravenous administration of 1 mg kg- 1 week- of beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan from the age of 4 weeks decreased the cumulative incidence of diabetes from 43.3% to 6.7% and also incidence of insulitis from 82.4% to 26.3% at the age of 20 weeks. ...These data indicate that immunopotentiators [beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan] could modulate the autoimmune mechanisms directed to pancreatic islets and inhibit the development of diabetes in BB rats."

Intraperitoneal: Beta(1-3)glucan 1.3 Glucan Activity in Mice: Intraperitoneal and Oral Applications. Baylor College of Medicine. Research Summary.  1989.

 

Klebsiella – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Kupffer Cells: Deimann W, Fahimi HD, “The Appearance of Transition Forms Between Monocytes and Kupffer Cells in the Liver of Rats Treated with Glucan,” J Exp Med, p883-897, Dept of Anat, U of Heidelberg, Germany.* Apr 1979.

 

Leprosy: Rayyan W, Delville J, “Effect of beta 1,3 glucan and other immunomodulators of microbial origin on experimental leprosy in mice.” Acta Leprol. 1:93-100. 1983.

Leukemia: DiLuzio NR, Williams DL, “Protective effect of glucan against systemic Staphylococcus aureus septicemia in normal and leukemic mice,” Infect Immun 20(3):804-810.  Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.*  Jun 1978.  Quote: “These data denote that glucan enhances nonspecific resistance to S. aureus sepsis, promotes survival during leukemic episodes, and increases survival time of leukemic mice with experimentally induced staphylococcal infection.”

Leukemia: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors,” Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Leukemia: Williams D.L, DiLuzio NR, “Glucan induced modification of experimental Staphylococcus aureus infection in normal, leukemic and immunosuppressed mice.” Adv Exp Med Biol 121(A):291-306. 1979*  Quote: “…A post-treatment regimen of glucan significantly enhanced survival of AKR/J mice with lymphocytic leukemia as well as leukemic mice with experimentally induced systemic staphylococcal infection.”

Leucopenia: Vetvicka V, Volny T, et al: "Glucan and resveratrol complex -- possible synergistic effects on immune system."  U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Biomed Pad Mde Fac, Czech Republic 15(1)41-6; Jun 2007. Quote: "...both glucan and resveratrol complex stimulated phagocytosis of blood leukocytes, caused increase in surface expression of CD(+) splenocytes and showed higher restoration of spleen recovery after experimentally induced leucopenia [low white cell count]. In all these cases, strong synergetic effects were observed. "

Lipid Metabolism Disorder: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.

Liver Damage: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Liver Toxicity/Oxidative Free Radical Injury: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Lung Damage - Sepsis: Babayigit H, Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Yazici C, Kose K, Akgun H.; Protective effect of beta-glucan on lung injury after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.” Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey; Intensive Care Med. (6):865-70; Jun 31, 2005. Quote: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis beta-glucan treatment partially protected against secondary lung injury, decreased lung hemorrhages, and lung neutrophilia. These results suggest that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-associated lung damage.”

Lupus – See Auto-Immune Disorders

 

Macrophage Activation: Abel G. and Czop, J.K., “Stimulation of human monocyte beta-glucan receptors by glucan particles induces production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta,” Int. J. Immunopharmacolol, 14:; 1363-1373. 1992.

Macrophage Activation: Abel, G. and Czop, J.K., “Activation of Human Monocyte GM-CSF and TNF-. alpha. Production by Particulate Yeast Glucan,” International Congress for Infectious Diseases, Montreal, Canada (abstract). 1990.*

Macrophage Activation: Adachi Y., Ohno N., Ohsawa M., Oikawa S.,Yacomae T.; “Macrophage activation in vitro by chemically cross-linked (1--3)-beta-D-glucans,” Chem Pharm bull (Tokyo), 38:988-992 1990.  Laboratory of Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Japan.*

Macrophage Activation-Peritoneal: Suzuki I, Tanaka H, Kinoshita A, Oikawa S, Osawa M, Yadomae T, “Effect of orally administered beta-glucan on macrophage function in mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 12(6)675-684. 1990. Quote: “These results demonstrate that SSG [beta 1,3 glucan] given by the oral route can activate peritoneal macrophages in mice.”

Malaria: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Fishcer GW, Sayles PC, Strictkland GT; “Increased resistance to malarial infection after treatment with the immunostimulator levamisole;” Curr. Therap. Infect. Disease 1099-1101, 1980.

Malaria: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Strictkland GT; “The use of immunopotentiators in malaria;” Intern. J. Nucl. Med Biol., 7:133-140; 1980.

Melanoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Methotrexate Toxicity: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Microbes: Lablanc BW, Albina JE, Reichner JS, "The effect of PGG-{beta}-glucan on neutrophil chemotaxis in vivo." Dept of Surgery, Rhode Isl Hospital and Brown Med Sch. Providence. J Leukoc Biol Jan 13, 2006. Quote: "The beta-glucans are long-chain polymers of glucose in beta-(1,3)(1,6) linkages, which comprise the fungal cell wall and stimulate cells of the innate immune system. ...Taken together, these findings demonstrate that beta-glucan directly affects the chemotactic capacity of circulating neutrophils...and potentiates antimicrobial host defense."

Microbes: Brown GD, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Micronized Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Microparasitic Diseases : DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” in Chemical Regulation of Immunology in Veterinary Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote:

Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants  in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions.

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Modulation: Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; Clinical experiences with the use of glucan. Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Modulation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Modulation: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “The modulatory effect of lipoproteins on the release of interleukin 1 by human peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives.” Apr 1989.*

Modulation: Tsujinaka T., Yokota M.K.; Modification of septic processes by B-glucan administration. Eur Surg Res; 22:540-546, 1990.*

Multiple Schlerosis – See Auto-Immune Disorders

Murine babesiosis: Benach J.L., et al., “Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial,” Infection and Immunity, 35(3):947-951. 1982.   Quote: “These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis.”

Murine hemopoietic cell proliferation: Niskanen E.O., Burgaleta C., Cline M.J., Goide D.W.; Effect of glucan, a macrophage activator, on murine hemopoietic cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in mice; Cancer Res 38: 1406-1409, 1978.

Mycotoxins - see Fungus also - Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Lett ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005, Quote:  …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins] 

Nephropathy-Contrast Induced (Acute Renal Failure): Koc E, Reis KA, Ebinc FA, Pasaoglu H, Demirtas C, Omeroglu S, Derici UB, Erten Y, Bali M Arinsov T, Sindel S; "Protective effect of beta-glucan on contrast induced-nephropathy [acute renal failure] and a comparison of beta-glucan with nebivolol and N-acetylcysteine in rats." Dept of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey; Clin Exp Nephrol, Apr 26 2011. Quote: "...beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...This study suggest that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy."

Neoplasia: Proctor and Yamamura; “Letters to the Editor: Effectiveness of Glucan in the Treatment of Human Neoplasia”. J. Nat’l Cancer Inst.; 61: 1179-1180. 1978.

Neoplasia: Schultz, et al., in “Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy”, Chirigos, ed., Raven Press, New York; pp. 241-248. 1978.

Neoplastic Diseases: DiLuzio N.R. (deceased), Williams D.L., Browder I.W.; Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for treatment of neoplastic diseases; U.S. Patent 4818752; 1989.

Nitric Oxide Synthesis: Ohno N, et al; “Effect of beta-glucans on the nitric oxide synthesis by peritoneal macrophages in mice;” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19:608-612; 1996.

Nitric Oxide: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Nuclear Emergency: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Organ Injury - Sepsis: Sener G, Toklu H, et al; "Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis," Int Immunopharmacol:1387-96 Epub 2005/Aug 2005. Quote: "Sepsis leads to various organ damage and dysfunction. One of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals. ...Elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels in septic rats [was] significantly reduced to control levels in beta-glucan treated rats. Since beta-glucan administration reversed these oxidant responses, it seems likely that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-induced oxidative organ injury."

Oxidative Damage/Stress: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Oxidative Damage / Liver Toxicity: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Oxidative Organ Damage: Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "Thermal injury may lead to systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Oxidative Tissue Damage / Liver-Kidney: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Pancreatitis : Browder IW., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., DiLuzio N., “Protective effect of glucan-enhanced macrophage function in experimental pancreatitis, Am J or Surgery,153:25-33,  1987

Paracoccidioidomycosis : Meira, D.A., et al; The Use of Glucan as Immunostimulant in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis; Am J. Trop Med Hyg 55(5), 496-503; Dept of Trop Dis, Dept of Microbio, State U of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 1996. Quote: “…glucan enhances the immune response through stimulation of macrophages by increasing their number, size, and function, stimulates secretion of lysozyme and TNF by activated macrophages, increases the phagocytosis of antigens, activates the formation of granulocyte and monocyte colonies, and factors increased activity of T and B lymphocytes, as well as complement activation. “

Parasites: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Parasites: Flatworms/Tapeworms: Velebny S, Hrckkoya G, Kogan G; "Impact of treatment with prasiquantel, silymarin [milk thistle] and/or beeta-glucan on pathophysiological markers of liver damage and fibrosis in mice infected with Mesocestoides vogae (Cestoda [flat worms including tape worms]) tetrathyridia;" Parasitological Institute, Slavak Republic; J Helminthol, 1-9, PubMed 18394210; April 8, 2008. Quote: "These results showed that combined treatment of PZQ (anthelmintic drug praziquante) with silymarin [milk thistle] and/or beta-glucan was able to ameliorate or suppress fibrogenesis in the liver, protect liver cells from oxidative damage and, possibly stimulate regeneration of the parenchyma."

Parasites: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Parasites: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

Parasitic Infection: DiLuzio N.R., ”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA. 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Parasitic Infection: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” in Chemical Regulation of Immunology in Veterinary Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984.

Particle Size: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan)

Quote: "...there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.

Compared with the aggregated [5-100 micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration.

Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form"

Particle Size: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. ... The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage.

As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption.

... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Particle Size: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

 

Globular Glucan (μg/ml)

Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml)

Media

Nitric Oxide (μM)

 275

 600

 0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.”

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Pathogens / Colds : Aulinger A, Riede L, Bothe G, Busch R, Gruenwald J, "Yeast (1,3)-(1-6)-beta-glucan helps to maintain the body's defense against pathogens: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric study in healthy subjects [162]. " Eur J Nutr, 52: 1913-1918; Jan 23, 2013. Quote: "...supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1-6)-beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25% as compared to placebo. ...Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episode...the yeast beta-glucan preparation increased the body's potential to defend against invading pathogens."

Pediatrics/Children: Li F, Jin X, Liu B, Zhuang W, Scalabrin D, "Follow-up Formula Consumption [FUF] in 3- to 4-Year-OLds and [Acute] Respiratory Infections [ARI]: an RCT." , Pediatrics. 133(6):e1533-40. Jun 2014. Quote: "...Our objective was to determine if a follow-up formula (FUF) containing DHA,...prebiotics.. and yeast B-glucan affects incidence of respiratory infections ... in healthy children."  The study was, "...a double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial, 3-4 year old children. ...Daily consumption of a FUF was associated with fewer episodes and shorter duration of ARI [ acute respiratory infections], as well as less antibiotic use. 

Periapical Bone Resorption : Stashenko, et al., “Reduction of Infection-Stimulated Periapical Bone Resorption by the Biological Response Modifier PGG Glucan”, J. Dent. Res.; 74(1):323-330; 1995.* Dept of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Dental Ctr, Boston, MA. Quote: “PGG glucan-treated animals had significantly less infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption than control animals…”

Peritonitis: Lahnborg G., Hedstrom K.G., Nord C.E.; “The Effect of Glucan - A Host Resistance Activator and Ampicillin on Experimental Intraabdominal Sepsis”. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 32: 347-353. 1982.*  Quote: “It is concluded that glucan, in combination with ampicillin, has a significant effect on the survival rate of rats with induced peritonitis, probably by enhancing the activities of the reticuloendothelial system, an important part of the total host resistance.”

Peritonitis: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Phagocytic Receptors: Czop J.K., Kay J., Isolation and Characterization of B-glucan Receptors on Human Mononuclear Phagocytes. J. Exp. Medicine; V.173:1511-1520. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.  1991. Quote: “…human alveolar macrophages …possess phagocytic receptors of comparable ligand specificity  for the Beta glucans commonly present in yeasts and fungi.”*

Platelet Production: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Use of aqueous soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production.” U.S. Patent 5532223. Issued July 2, 1996.*

Platelet Production: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Use of neutral soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production.” U.S. Patent 5488040. Issued January 30, 1996.*

Platelet Production: Spiros J.; Use of neutral soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production; U.S. Patent 5488040; 1996.

Platelet Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986.  Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Pneumonia: Steele C, Marrero L, Swain S, Harmsen AG, Zheng M, Brown GD, Gordon S, Shellito JE, Kolls JK., Alveolar macrophage-mediated killing of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris involves molecular recognition by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor.” Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. J Exp Med. 198(11): 1677-88; Dec 2003.: Quote: …these results show that nonopsonic phagocytosis and subsequent killing of P. carinii [a frequent cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals] by alveolar macrophages is dependent upon recognition by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor [activated by beta-glucan ingestion in the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor].”

Pneumonia: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Protozoan Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Pulmonary: Kimura A, Sherwood R, Goldstein E; “Glucan alteration of pulmonary antibacterial defense.” J Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:1-11. 1983.

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization not a commercial entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation, the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker's yeast-derived beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a specially processed proprietary form of microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated purified Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not reaggregate after the digestive process.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan).

“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.  Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley, minimally effective in immune potentiation and not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.  Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations.

© Copyright 2001-2014 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

 



 
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