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Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"I" through "P"

"IL-1" through "Pulmonary" (including "Immune Response" and "Infection", Particle Size)

IL 1 and TNF Alpha Production: Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Lett ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005,

Quote:  …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]

IL 1 and TNF-µ Production :  Hunter K, Washburn R, “Efficacy of topical antimicrobial acid and immunostimulatory B-Glucan in Animal Models of Cutaneous Infection,” U Nevada Medical School-Applied Res Grant, Aug 1998.  Quote: “Our laboratory has developed preliminary evidence that B-1,3/1,6 glucans possesses immunostimulatory activity for macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of the Th-1 cytokines IL-1 B, IL-12, and TNF-µ.”

IL 1 Enhancement: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Production of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-glucan derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 26(6): 731-736. Dec 1987.*

IL-1 Enhancement: Poutsiaka D.D., et al, “Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production,” Blood 82: 3695-3700 ; Dept of Med, New England Med Ctr, Boston, MA. 1993. Quote: “Because of their differential effects on cytokine production, beta-glucans may be used to therapeutic advantage in the diseases in which IL-1 is implicated.”*

Immune response potentiation:: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998. Quote: "… the size of a particle is one factor influencing phagocytic [microbe ingestion] efficiency by macrophages. …the number of macrophages actively phagocytosing [ingesting microbes] is affected by the particle size of the glucan.  This would suggest that, in vivo, a greater number of macrophages may be activated and thus would provide an enhanced immune response.

…these data do indicate that glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes.  This would suggest that the small particle glucan [MG Glucan] has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”    

Immune response potentiation: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. ... The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage.

As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption.

... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Immune response potentiation: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan).                

Immune response potentiation: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Isolation of a Yeast Heptaglucoside that Inhibits Monocyte Phagocytosis  of Zymosan Particles”. The Journal of Immunology; 142:959-965. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1989.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3-and 1,6  glycosidic linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungal cell walls and are active pharmacologic agents in host defense systems of plants and animals….The administration of particulate glucans from S. cerevisiae to laboratory animals induces host resistance to a variety of lethal pathogens by mechanisms involving macrophage stimulation.“

Immune response – Activation of White Blood Cells: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of .beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research;

Immune response – Activation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F., A B-glucan Inhibitable Receptor on Human Monocytes: Its Identity with the Phagocytic Receptor for Particular Activators of the Alternative Complement Pathway. Journal of Immunology 134: 1985;  2588-2593. 1985.* (copy available)

Immune Response – Immune T Cells Enhancement: Lotzova and Gutterman,  “Effect of Glucan on Natural Killer (NK) Cells: Further Comparison Between NK Cell and Bone Marrow Effector Cell Activities”. J. Immunol., 123: 607-611. 1979.

Immune Response – Increased Survival: Todd, R.F.; “The Continuing Saga of Complement Receptor Type 3 (CR3),” J. Clin Invest.: Vol 98, 1-2. 1996. Div of Hematology/Oncology Dept of Int. Med,  U of Michigan Med Ctr.* Quote: (p2) “In certain controlled clinical trials, the increased survival of patients receiving these immunostimulatory Beta-glucans has been reported.”

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase : Burgaleta, C. and Golde, D.W.; “Effect of Glucan on Granulopoiesis and Macrophage Genesis in Mice”.  Cancer Research;  37:1739-1742; Jun 1977.*

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase: Burgaleta C., Territo M.C., Quan C.G., Goide D.W.; Glucan activated macrophages: functional characteristics and surface morphology; J Reticuloendothel Soc 23: 195-204. 1978. Quote: “These studies indicate that glucan administration results in increased granulocyte and macrophage production….glucan as an immunotherapeutic agent can result in an increased number of available effector cells.”

Immune Response – Normalization: Chorvatovicova D., Navarova J., “Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.” Mutat. Res., 282:147-150, 1992.

Immune response – Normalization: Ferencik M, Kotulova D, Masler L, Bergendi, L, Sandula J, Stefanovic J; “Modulatory effect of glucans on the functional and biochemical activities of guinea-pig macrophages.” Methods Find. Exp., Clin. Pharmacol. 8:163-166. 1986.

Immune response - Particulate vs Soluble: Ishibashi K, Miura NN, et al, "Relationship between the physical properties of Candida albicans cell well beta-glucan and activation of leukocytes in vitro," Int Immunopharmacol 2(8):1109-22. Jul 2002. Quote: "Beta-glucan activated leukocytes significantly more effectively in a particulate than solubilized form in terms of TNF-alpha production by RAW 264.7 cells, hydrogen peroxide production by murine PEC and IL-8 production by human PBMC....These facts strongly suggested that the solubility and assembly of the components influence the immunopharmacological activities of 1,3-beta-D-glucans."

Immune response – Potentiation: Czop, J.K., Valiante N.M., Janusz M.J.; “Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors,” Prog Clin Biol Res 297: 287-296; Dept of Med, Harvard Med S, Boston, MA. 1989. Quote: “Animal studies indicate that beta-glucans with 1,3-and/or 1,6-linkages are active pharmacologic agents that rapidly confer protection to a normal host against a variety of biological insults. The beta-glucan receptors provide a mechanism by which a heightened state of host responsiveness is initiated.”

Immune response – Potentiation: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Fishcer GW, Sayles PC, Strictkland GT; “Levamisole: Potentiation of the primary immunoglobulin M antibody response in suckling rats.;” Immunopharmacology 3:117-127; 1981.

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan). Quote: "...there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range."

"Compared with the aggregated form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles ... are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. Although both aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] and microparticulate [1-2-µ micron diameter] glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form."

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

 

Globular Glucan (μg/ml)

Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml)

Media

Nitric Oxide (μM)

 275

 600

 0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; "Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;" U.S. Patent 5705184; 1998.

Immune Response – Stimulation: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “Evaluation of the Mechanism of Glucan-Induced Stimulation of the Reticuloendothelial System”.  J. Reticuloendothelial Soc.; Soc.7: 731-742. 1970.

Immune Response – T Cell Enhancement: Di Renzo, L., Yefenof, E., Klein E., “The Function of human NK [Killer T] cells is enhanced by B-Glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD18)”.  Eur. J. Immunol., 21:1755-1758. 1991.

Immune Response Enhancement  - IL 1 & IL 2: Sherwood. E.R., et al., “Enhancement of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-2 Production by Soluble Glucan,” International  Journal of Immunopharmacology.; 9:(3):261-267. 1987.

Immune Response Enhancement – IL 1: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Production of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-glucan derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 26(6): 731-736. Dec 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement – Oral Dietary Supplement:  Matthews, M.; “NSC-24 and NSC-100 – Exceptional Immune Enhancing Supplements,” Nutritional Supplement Immuno-Stimulant Bulletin, Vol I, No. 3. 1997.

Immune Response Enhancement : Spiros J.; Method for immune system activation by administration of a .beta.(1-3) glucan which is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain R4; U.S. Patent 5504079; 1996.

Immune Response Enhancement Seljelid R., et al., “A Soluble .beta.-1,3-Glucan Derivative Potentiates the Cytostatic and Cytolytic Capacity of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro”. Immunopharmacol; 7: 69-73. 1984.*

Immune Response Enhancement Vetvicka V., Thornton B.P., Ross G.D.; “Soluble Beta-glucan Polysaccharide Binding to the Lectin Site of Neutrophil or Natural Killer Cell Complement Receptor Type 3 (CD11b/CD18) Generates a Primed State of the Receptor Capable of Mediating Cytotoxicity of iC3b-Opsonized Target Cells,”. Journal Clin Invest 98: 50-61. Div of Experimental Immuno and Immunopath, Dept Path, U of Louisville, KY.* 1996.  Quote: “This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity.”

Immune Response Enhancement: - Oral Applications: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989. Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Immune Response Enhancement: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Lysosomal enzyme release from human monocytes by particulate activators is mediated by beta-glucan inhibitable receptors,” J. Immunol 138: 3897-3901. 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Kimura A., et al., “In Vitro Activation of Human Adherent Cells by a Glucan, Schizophyllan”.  J. Reticuloendothel.; Soc. 34: 1-11. 1983. Quote: “…Glucan-treated rats had significantly increased rates of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus immediately after infection…”

Immune Response Enhancement: Meira, D.A., et al; The Use of Glucan as Immunostimulant in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis; Am J. Trop Med Hyg 55(5), 496-503; 1996. Dept of Trop Dis, Dept of Microbio, State U of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Quote: “…glucan enhances the immune response through stimulation of macrophages by increasing their number, size, and function, stimulates secretion of lysozyme and TNF by activated macrophages, increases the phagocytosis of antigens, activates the formation of granulocyte and monocyte colonies, and factors increased activity of T and B lymphocytes, as well as complement activation."

Immune Response Enhancement: Poutsiaka D.D., et al, “Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production,” Blood 82: 3695-3700 ; 1993. Dept of Med, New England Med Ctr, Boston, MA. Quote: “Because of their differential effects on cytokine production, beta-glucans may be used to therapeutic advantage in the diseases in which IL-1 is implicated.”*

Immune Response Enhancement: Rios-Hernandez M., Dos-Santos N.J., Silvia-Cardosa, Belle-Garciga J.L., Peddrosa M., “Immunopharamacological studies of beta(1-3)glucan-1, 3-glucan”, Arch. Med. Res. 25 (2): 179-180.  1994.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Sakurai T, Hashimoto K, et al; “Enhancement of murine alveolar macrophage functions by orally administered beta-glucan.” Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 14:821-830. 1992.

Immune Response Enhancement: Seljelid R., et al.,”In vivo activation of mouse macrophages with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 21(6):601-605. Jun 1985.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Suzuki, Iwao, Tanaka, Hideki, Konoshita, Akira, Oikawa, Shozo, Osawa, Masumi and Yadomae.  “Effects of Orally Administered.beta.-Glucan on Macrophage Function in Mice”.  Toshiro, Journal of Immunopharmac; vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 675-684. 1990.

Immune Response Enhancement: Wooles and DiLuzio N.R.; “The Phagocytic and Proleferative Responses of the Reticuloendothelial System Following Glucan Administration”.  J. Reticuloendothelial..; Soc. 1: 169-169. 1964.

Immune Response Potentiation – B Cells: Czop J.K., Puglisi A.V., Miorandi D.Z., Austen K.F.; “Pertubation of beta-glucan receptors on human neutrophils initiates phagocytosis and leukotriene B4 production,” J. Immunol 141: 3170-3176. 1988.*

Immune Response Potentiator: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Immune Response: Bodenbach B.; NSC-24™: An Extraordinary New Immune Enhancing Supplement; Health Perspectives, vol 2, no 2; 1996.

Immune Response: Bousquet M., Escoula L. et al; “Immunopharmacologic study in mice of 2 beta-1,3, beta-1,6 polysaccharides (scleroglucan and PSAT) on the activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes,” Ann Rech Vet 20: 165-173. 1989. Station of Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, INRA, Toulouse, France.* Quote: “…PSAT and scleroglucan favorably affect the non-specific host defense and cellular immune response in mice.”

Immune response: Macrophage stimulation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F.; “Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes upon stimulation of their beta-glucan receptor during phagocytosis,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 82: 2751-2755 1985.*

Immune System: Ber L., Gazella K., “Activate Your Immune System;” Impakt Communications, 1998.

Impaired Immunity: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause including, but not limited to HIV infection; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

In vitro studies reveal that bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes possess Beta-glucan receptors that mediate phagocytosis of glucan particles and induce release of proinflammatory mediators…”

Infection: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Infection – Abdominal: Bowers GJ, Patchen ML, et al, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res 47(2): 183-188; Aug 1989.*

Infection-M bovis,BCG: Hetland G, Wiker H, “Protective effect of beta-glucan against mycobacterium bovis, BCG infection in BALB/c mice.” Scand J Immunol, 47:6, 548-53, Jun 1998.  Quote: “Beta 1,3-glucan is a potent stimulator of macrophage functions and has a protective effect against a range of infections in rodent models.”

Infection – Diseases: Reynolds J.A., et al., “Glucan-Induced Enhancement of Host Resistance to Selected Infectious Diseases”, Infection and Immunity; 30, 51. 1980.*

Infection - Escherichia coli : Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Infection – Microbial: Raa J., Roerstad G., Engstad R., Robertsen B., “The Use of Immunostimulants to Increase Resistance of Aquatic Organisms to Microbial Infection”. J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol., (1989) 15:1199-1202. 1989.

Infection – Multiple Trauma: De Felippe Junior, et al. ”Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator eta 1-3 polyglucose (glucan).” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics; 177(4):383-388. 1993.

Infection – Oral Tissue: Ostroff, G.R.; “Inhibition of infection-stimulated oral tissue destruction by .beta(1-3)glucan.(1,3)-glucan,” U.S. Patent 5622940.  Issued April 22, 1997.

Infection - Periapical Bone Resorption : Stashenko, et al., “Reduction of Infection-Stimulated Periapical Bone Resorption by the Biological Response Modifier PGG Glucan”, J. Dent. Res.; 74(1):323-330; Dept of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Dental Ctr, Boston, MA. 1995.* Quote: “PGG glucan-treated animals had significantly less infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption than control animals…”

Infection - Plasmodium Benghei : Holbrook T.W., et al., “Glucan-Enhanced Immunogenicity of Killed Erythrocylic Stages of Plasmodium Benghei”;  Infection and Immunity, 32, 542. 1981.

Infection - Postplenectomy : Browder IW.,et al., “Protective Effect of Nonspecific Immunostimulation in Post Splenectomy Sepis”.  J. Surg. Res.; 35: 474-479. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA. 1983. * Quote: “This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyclucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis.  …Nonspecific immunostimulation appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.”

Infection - Prevention: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Infection - Staphylococcus Aureus : DiLuzio N.R., Williams DL; “Enhancement of host susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection by chronic ethanol ingestion—modification by glucan immunostimulation,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 4(3): 254-260. Jul 1980.* Quote: “The administration of glucan significantly prolonged survival of S. Aureus infected control and chronic ethanol mice.”

Infection - Staphylococcus aureus: Kimura A., et al., “In Vitro Activation of Human Adherent Cells by a Glucan, Schizophyllan”.  J. Reticuloendothel.; Soc. 34: 1-11. 1983. Quote: “…Glucan-treated rats had significantly increased rates of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus immediately after infection…”

Infection – Staphylococcus: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L., “Glucan-Induced Modification of the Increases Susceptibility of Cyclophosphamide-Treated Mice to Staphylococcus aureus Infection”.  Cancer Immunol. Immunother.; 6: 73-79. 1979.

Infection - Staphylococcus: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibotory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.*  Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Infection – Staphyloccus: Dernodle D, Gates H, Kaiser A, “Prophylactic anti-infective activity of poly-[1,6]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,3]-beta-D-glucopryanose glucan in a guinea pig model of staphylococcal wound infection,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42:3,545-9. Mar 1998. Quote: “…glucan reduces the risk of staphylococcal abscess formation. Neutrophil-activating agents [glucan] are a novel means of prophylaxis against surgical infection and may be less likely than antibiotics to be affected adversely by the increasing antibiotic resistance of nosocomial pathogens.”

Infection - Streptococcus : Mansell P.W.A., et al., Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Water-Insoluble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies”. Macrophage-Mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells In Vitro; Inai et al., J. Immunol (1976); 1256-1260. 1976.

Infection - Streptococcus mutans:  Inai et al., “Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway By Water-Insoluble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies.”  J. Immunol.; 117” 1256-1260. 1976.

Infection – Viral: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Infection: Bacterial: Franek J, Malina J, Kratka H, “Bacterial infection modulated by glucan: a search for the host defense potentiation mechanisms,” Folia Microbiol (Praha) 37(2): 146-152. 1992.*

Infection-Post Surgery: Babineau, et al., “Randomized Phase I/II Trial of a Macrophage-Specific Immunomodulator (PGG-Glucan) in High Risk Surgical Patients”, Annals of Surgery; 220:(5):601-609. 1994. Dept of Surgery, Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical Sch, Boston MA.* Quote: “PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery.”*

Infections - Bacterial: Kokoshis P.L., Williams D.L., Cook J.A., Di Luzio N.R.; Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Science 199: 1340-1342, 1978.*  Quote: “These studies indicate that glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections.”

Infections – Bacterial: Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R.: “Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release”, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry; 46:60-68. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1991.* Quote: Beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives protect mice against otherwise lethal bacterial infections.”

Infections – Bacterial: Wang W., Duen-Horng W., et al; “Polysaccharide-Induced protection of Tilapia, Tilapia aureus P., against Bacterial Infections in vivo,” Dept of Veterinary Medicine.

Infections – Disease: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Infections – Surgical Procedures: Norton MD, JA [Prof of Surg, Chief of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery]; “Editorial: Annals of Surgery,” Washington University School of Medicine, Nov 1994. Quote: In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, [Babineau, et.al.] demonstrate that the perioperative administration of PGG-glucan, a substance derived from yeast that increases the microbial killing activity of leukocytes, can decrease infectious complications in patients undergoing major surgical procedures…the preliminary results are positive and should be interpreted as good news.”

Intraperitoneal: Beta(1-3)glucan 1.3 Glucan Activity in Mice: Intraperitoneal and Oral Applications. Baylor College of Medicine. Research Summary.  1989.

 

Klebsiella – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Kupffer Cells: Deimann W, Fahimi HD, “The Appearance of Transition Forms Between Monocytes and Kupffer Cells in the Liver of Rats Treated with Glucan,” J Exp Med, p883-897, Dept of Anat, U of Heidelberg, Germany.* Apr 1979.

 

Leprosy: Rayyan W, Delville J, “Effect of beta 1,3 glucan and other immunomodulators of microbial origin on experimental leprosy in mice.” Acta Leprol. 1:93-100. 1983.

Leukemia: DiLuzio NR, Williams DL, “Protective effect of glucan against systemic Staphylococcus aureus septicemia in normal and leukemic mice,” Infect Immun 20(3):804-810.  Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.*  Jun 1978.  Quote: “These data denote that glucan enhances nonspecific resistance to S. aureus sepsis, promotes survival during leukemic episodes, and increases survival time of leukemic mice with experimentally induced staphylococcal infection.”

Leukemia: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors,” Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Leukemia: Williams D.L, DiLuzio NR, “Glucan induced modification of experimental Staphylococcus aureus infection in normal, leukemic and immunosuppressed mice.” Adv Exp Med Biol 121(A):291-306. 1979*  Quote: “…A post-treatment regimen of glucan significantly enhanced survival of AKR/J mice with lymphocytic leukemia as well as leukemic mice with experimentally induced systemic staphylococcal infection.”

Lipid Metabolism Disorder: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.

Lung Damage - Sepsis: Babayigit H, Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Yazici C, Kose K, Akgun H.; Protective effect of beta-glucan on lung injury after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.” Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey; Intensive Care Med. (6):865-70; Jun 31, 2005. Quote: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis beta-glucan treatment partially protected against secondary lung injury, decreased lung hemorrhages, and lung neutrophilia. These results suggest that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-associated lung damage.”

Lupus – See Auto-Immune Disorders

 

Macrophage Activation: Abel G. and Czop, J.K., “Stimulation of human monocyte beta-glucan receptors by glucan particles induces production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta,” Int. J. Immunopharmacolol, 14:; 1363-1373. 1992.

Macrophage Activation: Abel, G. and Czop, J.K., “Activation of Human Monocyte GM-CSF and TNF-. alpha. Production by Particulate Yeast Glucan,” International Congress for Infectious Diseases, Montreal, Canada (abstract). 1990.*

Macrophage Activation: Adachi Y., Ohno N., Ohsawa M., Oikawa S.,Yacomae T.; “Macrophage activation in vitro by chemically cross-linked (1--3)-beta-D-glucans,” Chem Pharm bull (Tokyo), 38:988-992 1990.  Laboratory of Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Japan.*

Macrophage Activation-Peritoneal: Suzuki I, Tanaka H, Kinoshita A, Oikawa S, Osawa M, Yadomae T, “Effect of orally administered beta-glucan on macrophage function in mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 12(6)675-684. 1990. Quote: “These results demonstrate that SSG [beta 1,3 glucan] given by the oral route can activate peritoneal macrophages in mice.”

Malaria: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Fishcer GW, Sayles PC, Strictkland GT; “Increased resistance to malarial infection after treatment with the immunostimulator levamisole;” Curr. Therap. Infect. Disease 1099-1101, 1980.

Malaria: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Strictkland GT; “The use of immunopotentiators in malaria;” Intern. J. Nucl. Med Biol., 7:133-140; 1980.

Melanoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Microbes: Brown GD, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Micronized Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Microparasitic Diseases : DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” in Chemical Regulation of Immunology in Veterinary Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote:

Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants  in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions.

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: See "Particle Size"

Modulation: Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; Clinical experiences with the use of glucan. Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Modulation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Modulation: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “The modulatory effect of lipoproteins on the release of interleukin 1 by human peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives.” Apr 1989.*

Modulation: Tsujinaka T., Yokota M.K.; Modification of septic processes by B-glucan administration. Eur Surg Res; 22:540-546, 1990.*

Multiple Schlerosis – See Auto-Immune Disorders

Murine babesiosis: Benach J.L., et al., “Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial,” Infection and Immunity, 35(3):947-951. 1982.   Quote: “These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis.”

Murine hemopoietic cell proliferation: Niskanen E.O., Burgaleta C., Cline M.J., Goide D.W.; Effect of glucan, a macrophage activator, on murine hemopoietic cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in mice; Cancer Res 38: 1406-1409, 1978.

Mycotic Infections - see fungus infections also - Vaclav Vetvicka, Frank Jamois, et al,  “Glucan-like synthetic oligosaccharides: iterative synthesis of linear oligo-_-(1,3)-glucans and immunostimulatory effects.”  Department of Pathology, University of Louisville;  Oxford University Press; Glycobiology vol. 15 no. 4 pp. 393–407, 2005.  Quote: …”Nevertheless, it is generally assumed that β-(1,3)-glucans are able to stimulate the nonspecific immune system against bacterial, viral, mycotic, and microparasitic infections as well as against malignant cell growth.”

Mycotoxins - see fungus also - Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Lett ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005, Quote:  …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]

 

Neoplasia: Proctor and Yamamura; “Letters to the Editor: Effectiveness of Glucan in the Treatment of Human Neoplasia”. J. Nat’l Cancer Inst.; 61: 1179-1180. 1978.

Neoplasia: Schultz, et al., in “Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy”, Chirigos, ed., Raven Press, New York; pp. 241-248. 1978.

Neoplastic Diseases: DiLuzio N.R. (deceased), Williams D.L., Browder I.W.; Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for treatment of neoplastic diseases; U.S. Patent 4818752; 1989.

Nitric Oxide Synthesis: Ohno N, et al; “Effect of beta-glucans on the nitric oxide synthesis by peritoneal macrophages in mice;” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19:608-612; 1996.

Nitric Oxide: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

 

Pancreatitis : Browder IW., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., DiLuzio N., “Protective effect of glucan-enhanced macrophage function in experimental pancreatitis, Am J or Surgery,153:25-33,  1987

Paracoccidioidomycosis : Meira, D.A., et al; The Use of Glucan as Immunostimulant in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis; Am J. Trop Med Hyg 55(5), 496-503; Dept of Trop Dis, Dept of Microbio, State U of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 1996. Quote: “…glucan enhances the immune response through stimulation of macrophages by increasing their number, size, and function, stimulates secretion of lysozyme and TNF by activated macrophages, increases the phagocytosis of antigens, activates the formation of granulocyte and monocyte colonies, and factors increased activity of T and B lymphocytes, as well as complement activation. “

Parasites: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Parasites: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

Parasitic Infection: Vaclav Vetvicka, Frank Jamois, et al,  “Glucan-like synthetic oligosaccharides: iterative synthesis of linear oligo-_-(1,3)-glucans and immunostimulatory effects.”  Department of Pathology, University of Louisville;  Oxford University Press; Glycobiology vol. 15 no. 4 pp. 393–407, 2005.  Quote: …”Nevertheless, it is generally assumed that β-(1,3)-glucans are able to stimulate the nonspecific immune system against bacterial, viral, mycotic, and microparasitic infections as well as against malignant cell growth.”

Parasitic Infection: DiLuzio N.R., ”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA. 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Parasitic Infection: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” in Chemical Regulation of Immunology in Veterinary Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984.

Particle Size: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan)

Quote: "...there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.

Compared with the aggregated [5-100 micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration.

Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form"

Particle Size: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. ... The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage.

As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption.

... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Particle Size: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

 

Globular Glucan (μg/ml)

Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml)

Media

Nitric Oxide (μM)

 275

 600

 0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.”

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Periapical Bone Resorption : Stashenko, et al., “Reduction of Infection-Stimulated Periapical Bone Resorption by the Biological Response Modifier PGG Glucan”, J. Dent. Res.; 74(1):323-330; 1995.* Dept of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Dental Ctr, Boston, MA. Quote: “PGG glucan-treated animals had significantly less infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption than control animals…”

Peritonitis: Lahnborg G., Hedstrom K.G., Nord C.E.; “The Effect of Glucan - A Host Resistance Activator and Ampicillin on Experimental Intraabdominal Sepsis”. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 32: 347-353. 1982.*  Quote: “It is concluded that glucan, in combination with ampicillin, has a significant effect on the survival rate of rats with induced peritonitis, probably by enhancing the activities of the reticuloendothelial system, an important part of the total host resistance.”

Peritonitis: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Phagocytic Receptors: Czop J.K., Kay J., Isolation and Characterization of B-glucan Receptors on Human Mononuclear Phagocytes. J. Exp. Medicine; V.173:1511-1520. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.  1991. Quote: “…human alveolar macrophages …possess phagocytic receptors of comparable ligand specificity  for the Beta glucans commonly present in yeasts and fungi.”*

Platelet Production: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Use of aqueous soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production.” U.S. Patent 5532223. Issued July 2, 1996.*

Platelet Production: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Use of neutral soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production.” U.S. Patent 5488040. Issued January 30, 1996.*

Platelet Production: Spiros J.; Use of neutral soluble glucan preparations to stimulate platelet production; U.S. Patent 5488040; 1996.

Platelet Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986.  Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Pneumonia: Steele C, Marrero L, Swain S, Harmsen AG, Zheng M, Brown GD, Gordon S, Shellito JE, Kolls JK., Alveolar macrophage-mediated killing of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris involves molecular recognition by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor.” Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. J Exp Med. 198(11): 1677-88; Dec 2003.: Quote: …these results show that nonopsonic phagocytosis and subsequent killing of P. carinii [a frequent cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals] by alveolar macrophages is dependent upon recognition by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor [activated by beta-glucan ingestion in the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor].”

Pneumonia: Maurici da Rocha e Silva et al; “Infection Prevention in Patients with Severe Multiple Trauma with the Immunomodulater Beta 1-3 Polyglucose (glucan);” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics; 177:383-388. 1993.  Quote:  “The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%….The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis….decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost.”

Protozoan Infections: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Pulmonary: Kimura A, Sherwood R, Goldstein E; “Glucan alteration of pulmonary antibacterial defense.” J Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:1-11. 1983.

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization is a "not-for-profit" entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation (NSC-24 and NSC-100 Immunition™ Products), the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: MG Glucan is a proprietary form of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan processed to prevent reaggregation of the microparticulate insoluble particles which according to Medical School Research, enhances significantly the immune potentiation properties relative to globular or reaggregated glucans. Purified Beta 1,3-D glucan is a beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage and the molecule skewed to the right.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). “Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.

© Copyright 2005 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

 



 
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