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Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"D" through "H"

"Decubitus Ulcers" through "Hyperlipemia" (including "Diabetes", "Dosage", "Heart" & "Hepatitis")

Decubitus Ulcers -  See also Wound Healing and Ulcers

Dermatitis: Castelli D, Colin L, Camel E, Ries G; “Pretreatment of skin with a Ginkgo biloba extract/sodium carboxymethyl-beta-1,3-glucan formulation appears to inhibit the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in man;” Contact Dermatitia, 38:3,123-6. Mar 1998.  Quote: “…Ginkgo biloba / carboxymethyl-beta-1,3-glucan formulation can mitigate against allergic contact dermatitis.”

Diabetes-Serum Glucose Control: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. ".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.

Diabetes: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: …people with chronic degenerative disorders such as diabetes or chronic inflammation. …

Diabetes: Kida K., Inoue T., et al; “An immunopotentiator of beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan prevents diabetes and insulitis in BB rats.” Diabetes. Res. Clin. Pract. 17:75-79. 1992.  Quote: “The preventive effect of an immunopotentiator, beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan, on the development of diabetes and insulitis was studied in BB rats….[and] decreased the cumulative incidence of diabetes from 43.3% to 6.7% and also the incidence of insulitis from 82.4% to 26.3%….These data indicate that immunopotentiators could modulate the autoimmune mechanisms directed to pancreatic islets and inhibit the development of diabetes in BB rats.”

Diabetes: Lang C.H., Dobrescu C.; “Interleukin-1 induced increases in glucose utilization are insulin mediated.” Life Sciences; 45(22):2127-34. 1989.

Diabetes: Sherwood. E.R., et al., “Enhancement of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-2 Production by Soluble Glucan,” International  Journal of Immunopharmacology.; 9:(3):261-267. 1987.

Dosage: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote: "...we compared the ability of orally administered microparticulate and aggregated B-glucan preparations given at 0·1 mg kg -1 daily for 14 d to enhance peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. Note that this dosage is equivalent to a 10-mg capsule of B-glucan given orally to a 75-kg human. ... It appears that the same dose of microparticulate B-glucan is better able to enhance macrophage phagocytosis than aggregated B-glucan."

Dosage: U. of Nev School of Medicine and Nutritional Supply Corporation, "Beta Glucan Research Project Report," Press Release, Feb 1, 2000. Quote: "The preliminary dose response studies demonstrate that oral doses of micronized MG glucan equivalent to 10 mg per day in humans provided significant immunopotentiation in mice."

Dosage: U. of Nev School of Medicine and Nutritional Supply Corporation, "Beta Glucan Project Preliminary Findings," Press Release, October 8, 1999. Quote: "Moreover, studies in mice included in the extensive research project at the University of Nevada School of Medicine have demonstrated a strong immunopotentiating effect in doses [of MG Beta Glucan] that would be equivalent to a human dose of 10 milligrams."

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Escherichia coli – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial

Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM,  Seljelid R; “Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions,” Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 1987.*

Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM, Bogwald J., Hoffman J., Sjunneskog C.; “The effect of splenectomy on Escherichia coli sepsis and its treatment  with semisoluble animated glucan,”, Scand J. Gastroenterol, 22:261-267, 1987.

Escherichia coli : Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Dynamics of blood components and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives. I. Cells.,” Scand J Immunol 32(4): 321-331. Oct 1990.*

Escherichia coli : Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Dynamics of blood components and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives. II. Interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4,”  Scand J Immunol 32(4): 333-340. Oct 1990.*

Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Fandrem. Jr., and Seljelid R., “Dynamics of Blood Components and Peritoneal Fluid During Treatment of Murine E. Coli Sepis with . beta.-1,3-D-polyglucose Derivatives”; Scand. J 63:73-80 Immunol. 1985.

Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Konopski Z, Oian P, Seljelid R; “Killing of Escherichia coli by mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils stimulated in vitro with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives,” Microbiol Immunol 36(11):1173-1188. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1992.*

Escherichia coli:  Williams D.L, Browder IW and DiLuzio N.R,”Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli—induced experimental peritonitis and bacteremia by glucan,” Surgery 93(3):448-454. Mar 1983.* Quote: “These data denote that the intraperitoneal administration of glucan significantly modifies the course of E. coli-induced peritonitis and bacteremia due, in part, to glucan-induced enhancement of macrophage function.”

Escherichia coli:  Williams D.L., et al; “Effect of glucan on neutrophil dynamics and immune function in Escherichia coli peritonitis.” J. Surg. Res. 44:54-61, 1988.

Escherichia coli: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992.  Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”

Escherichia coli: Seljelid R., et al., ”The protective effect of beta 1-3D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads against Escherichia coli infection in mice,” Scand J. Immuno 25(1):55-60. Jan 1987.* Quote: “Pretreatment with beta-1,3-D-glucan-drivatized plastic beads conferred strong protection against Escherichia coli infection in mice.”

Esherichia coli: Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”

Exercise Stress:  Kohut ML, Davis JM, et al: “Effect of exercise on macrophage antiviral function in the lung.” J. of Am. Cell. Of Sports Medicine; Vol. 26. S33. 1994.

 

Fibromyalgia – (Similar to Chronic Fatique) See Auto-Immune Disorders

Free Radical Scavenger: Anti-free Radical Activity of Beta(1-3)glucan Molecule. Seporga Laboratories, Sophia Antipolis, France. Research Report. 1990.

Free Radical Scavenger: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Free radical scavenging assays were repeated in different models, which then confirmed the antioxidant effect of beta 1,3-glucan.  In light of what is presently known about the potential of free radicals to accelerate aging, cause cancer and other degenerative diseases, this particular effect of beta 1,3-glucan is especially important.”

Free Radical Scavenging:  Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987. Quote: …evidence suggest that glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger."

Fungal Diseases and Pathogens: Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Lett ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005,

Quote:  …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]

Fungal/Mycotic Infection: Vaclav Vetvicka, Frank Jamois, et al,  “Glucan-like synthetic oligosaccharides: iterative synthesis of linear oligo-_-(1,3)-glucans and immunostimulatory effects.”  Department of Pathology, University of Louisville;  Oxford University Press; Glycobiology vol. 15 no. 4 pp. 393–407, 2005.  Quote: …”Nevertheless, it is generally assumed that β-(1,3)-glucans are able to stimulate the nonspecific immune system against bacterial, viral, mycotic, and microparasitic infections as well as against malignant cell growth.”

Fungal Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent  macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases. “

Fungal Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Fungal Infection: DiLuzio N.R.," Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Fungal: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”

 

Heart Disease: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “…immunosuppression is observed in people with stress-related disease such as coronary heart disease.  Under such influences the number of macrophages [white immune cells] available are reduced and unable to participate in the immune cascade, which caused an even greater immunosuppression.

 Beta 1,3 glucan has proven to both stimulate and activate the macrophage cells, which will counter these negative effects. …People with high risk of atherosclerosis should definitely add beta 1,3 glucan to their diet in addition to any cholesterol-reducing drugs.

 Macrophage activation helps draw extra cholesterol from the blood, prevent further plaque formation on the arterial walls and phagocytes [eats] existing plaque which is recognized as a foreign body.”

Hemopoietic Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”.  Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.

Hemopoietic Stimulation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983.  Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation."

Hepatic Metastases : Sherwood. E.R., et al., ”Soluble Glucan and Lymphokine-activated Killer (LAK) Cells in the Therapy of Experimental Hepatic Metastases,” Chemical Abstracts; 108:179752V. 1988.

Hepatitis – Viral : Williams D.L. and DiLuzio N.R.; “Glucan-Induced Modification of murine Viral Hepatitis”.  Science (1980), 208: 67-69. 1980.* Quote: “Thus glucan is capable of increasing survival, inhibiting hepatic necrosis, and maintaining an activated state of phagocytic activity in mice challenged with [mouse hepatitis virus strain] MHV-A59.”

Hepatitis – Viral: Williams D.L. and DiLuzio N.R.,;“Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis by Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. in the Reticuloendothelial System and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease, Liehr and Grun, eds.  Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1983.

Hepatitis:  “Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis By Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. Elesevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1980.

Herpes-simplex: Kohl, et al., “Inhibition of Human Monocyte-Macrophage and Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity to Herpes-simplex Cells by Glucan”.  J. Immunol. Methods; 29: 361-368. 1979.*  Quote: “Particulate, cell-associated glucan irreversibly inhibited MP antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).”

Herpes-simplex 1: Marchetti M, Pisani S, Pietropaolo V, Seganti L, Nicoletti R, Degener A, Orsi N; “Antiviral effect of a polysaccharide from Schlerotium glucanicum towards herpes simples virus type 1 infection.” Planta Med, 62:4, 301-7. Aug 1996. Quote: “The antiviral effect of scleroglucan seems to be related to its binding with membrane glycoproteins of HSV-1 particles which impedes the complex interactions of the virus with the cell plasma membrane.”

Hyperlipemia: Donzis B. A.: Method and Composition for Treating Hyperlipemia. U.S. Patent 4,891,220; 1990.

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization is a "not-for-profit" entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation (NSC-24 and NSC-100 Immunition™ Products), the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: MG Glucan is a proprietary form of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan processed to prevent reaggregation of the microparticulate insoluble particles which according to Medical School Research, enhances significantly the immune potentiation properties relative to globular or reaggregated glucans. Purified Beta 1,3-D glucan is a beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage and the molecule skewed to the right.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). “Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.

© Copyright 2005 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

 



 
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