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Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"A" through "C"

"Abdominal Adhesions" through "Cytokine Release" (Including "Bacterial Infection", "Cancer," "Candida," "Chemotherapy,"  "Cholesterol" and "Colds")

Abdominal Adhesions: Almdahl SM,  Seljelid R; “Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions,” Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 1987.*

Abdominal Sepsis: Lahnborg, et al., “Glucan-Induced Enhancement of Host Resistance in Experimental Intraabdominal Sepis”. Eur. Surg. Res.; 401-408. 1982.*

Acetaminophen Liver Toxicity: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Acute Renal Failure (Nephropathy-Contrast Induced): Koc E, Reis KA, Ebinc FA, Pasaoglu H, Demirtas C, Omeroglu S, Derici UB, Erten Y, Bali M Arinsov T, Sindel S; "Protective effect of beta-glucan on contrast induced-nephropathy [acute renal failure] and a comparison of beta-glucan with nebivolol and N-acetylcysteine in rats." Dept of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey; Clin Exp Nephrol, Apr 26 2011. Quote: "...beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...This study suggest that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy [renal failure]."

Adjuvant: Aleem E, “B-Glucans and their applications in cancer therapy: focus on human studies,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(5):709-19, Jun 2013. Quote: β-glucans have been used as adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, mainly in the Far East, with a positive effect on patients' survival and quality of life. The mechanism of action is suggested to be through its stimulation of the immune system.

Adjuvant: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; "Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate." Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23, 2011: "B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. ...Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages)....Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro.  Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression." Note: Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells produce interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and Lymphotoxin-alpha (formerly known as tumor necrosis factor - beta or TNF-β), which activate macrophages and are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent protective responses.

Adjuvant - Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: B-Glucans work, in part, by stimulating the innate immune mechanism to fight a range of foreign challenges and could be used as an adjuvant, in combination with anti-infective or antineoplastic agents, radiotherapy, an a range of topical agents and nutrients." [Note: "antineoplastic agents" inhibit the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells including chemotherapy drugs]

Adjuvant - Immunizations: Hunter KW Jr, Berner VK, Sura ME; "Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations," Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, U of Nev Sch of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; PuMed 18677470; Epub Aug 2, 2008: Quote: "Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG)...we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. ...When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund's adjuvant....These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carabondiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens."

Adjuvant - Hyperbaric oxygen: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.”  World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006.  Quote: "… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.

Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Browder IW., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., DiLuzio N., “Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis”, Surgery 102 (2): 206-214.  1987.

Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intraabdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan), J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998.Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”

Adjuvant:-Antibiotics Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,”Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”

Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989.

Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Adjuvant - Chemotherapy - Chen J, et al, “The application of fungal B-glucans for the treatment of colon cancer.” Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):725-30. Jun 2013. PMID:23293888 Quote: Beta-glucans can also have synergistic effects with chemotherapeutic agents and other immune stimulators, and an innovative strategy is to use beta-glucans to deliver nanoparticles containing chemotherapeutic agents to the site of the colon cancer and, thus, improve the therapeutic efficacy.

Adjuvant – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: "Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life."

Adjuvant : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; Clinical experiences with the use of glucan. Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Adjuvant: Benach J.L., et al., “Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial,” Infection and Immunity, 35(3):947-951. 1982.  Quote: “These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis.”

Adjuvant: Ber L., “Yeast-derived beta-1,3-D-glucan: An adjuvant concept,” American Journal of Natural Medicine; Vol 4, No. 9, Nov 1997.

Adjuvant: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan drug delivery system and adjuvant,” U.S.Patent 5607677. Issued March 4, 1997.*

Adjuvant: Lahnborg G., Hedstrom K.G., Nord C.E.; “The Effect of Glucan - A Host Resistance Activator and Ampicillin on Experimental Intraabdominal Sepsis”. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 32: 347-353. 1982.*  Quote: “It is concluded that glucan, in combination with ampicillin, has a significant effect on the survival rate of rats with induced peritonitis, probably by enhancing the activities of the reticuloendothelial system, an important part of the total host resistance.”

Adjuvant: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors”, Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Adjuvant: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar.  11:403-410. 1989.

Adjuvants: Audibert FM, Lise LD; “Adjuvants: Current status , clinical perspectives, and future prospects;” Immunol. Today 14:281-284; 1993.

Adjuvant-Surgical Therapy: Compton R, Williams D, Browder W; “The beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function on the healing of bowel anastomoses,” Am Surg, 62:1,14-8. Jan 1996. Quote:  “immuno-pharmacologic agents [glucan] that enhance macrophage function may be an important adjunct to surgical therapy requiring bowel anastomosis.”

Aflotoxin Mycotoxin – Vetvicka V, “Effects of B-glucan on some environmental toxins: An overview.”   Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub;  2014;158(1):1-4. PMD: 24399292. Quote: “...glucan reduces the immunosuppressive effects of a number of agents including chemo therapy and radiation. ... An overview of the effects of glucan on the mycotoxin, aflotoxin and other environmental toxins (mercury-thimerosal, depleted uranium).  Glucan is effective as a natural immunomodulator and could be used as an inexpensive solution to reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins.”

Aging – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: "Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life."

Aging : Carrow, D.J. MD.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “…beta 1,3-glucan may well be the first and only true anti-aging supplement available to all of us.”

Aging: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause ...; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Aging: Gilcrest B, Murphy G, Soter N; “Effect of Chronologic Ageing and U.V. Irradiation on Langerhans Cells in Human Epidermis;” J. Investigative Dermatology; Vol 79:85-88. 1982.

Aging: Inamuzu T., Chang M.P., Makinodan T.; “Influence of Age on the Production and Regulation of Interleukin-1 in Mice”, Immunology; V.55, p.447-455. 1985.*

Aging: Makinodan T, Kay M; “Age Influence on the Immune System,” Advances in Immunology;  Vol 29:287-330. 1980.

Aging: Marguerite MB: “An Overview of Aging. Mechanisms of Aging and Development.” pp 39-59. 1979.

Aging: Olmos JM, de Dies B, Garcia JD et al; “Monocyte Function in the Elderly.” Allergol Immunopathol. (Madrid, Spain); 14(5):369-373. 1986.

Aging: Price GB, Makinodan T: “Immunologic deficiencies in senescence.” J. of Immunol.; 108(2):403-412. 1972.

Agrewala JN, et al, “Differential effect of anti-B7-1 and anti-M150 antibodies in restricting the delivery of costimulatory signals from B cells and macrophages;” J. Immunol. 160:1067-1077; 1998.

Allergies: Yamada J, et al: "Alleviation of seasonal allergic symptoms with superfine beta-1-glucan: A randomized study." Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zaeshi, 113(11):1082-7; PMID 19994586; Nov 2009. Quote: "Allergic response is induced by the Th2-type immune response. ...The intracellular...antigen-presenting cells (APCS) reportedly regulates the Th1/Th 2 balance via distinctive cytokine production of APCs. ...The double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study shows that the ingestion of superfine dispersed beta-1,3-glucan alleviates ongoing symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis."

Allergies: Yamada J, Hamuro J, Hatanak H, Hamabata K, Kinoshita S: "Alleviation of seasonal allergic symptoms with superfine beta-1-glucan: A randomized study." J of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 119(5):1119-26: PMID 17379290, Meiji U of Oriental Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 06 2007. Quote: "It was examined whether orally ingested, superfine dispersed beta-1,3-glucan (SDG), easily absorbed by the intestinal mucosa, would alleviate allergic symptoms. Allergic patients were orally administrated ...superfine dispersed beta-1,3 glucan...and allergic symptoms were assessed clinically in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study. ...Alleviation of allergic symptoms was evident not only for seasonal allergy to cedar pollen but also for perennial allergy. Oral ingestion of beta-1,3-glucan in individuals with allergic tropism [cells sensitive to allergens] could reduce spontaneous increase in both allergen-specific and total IgE titers."

Allergies: Kirmaz C, Bayrak P; "Effects of glucan treatment on the Th1/Th2 [Th=Helper T cells] balance in patients with allergic rhinitis [hayfever]: a double-blind placebo-controlled study." Eur Cytokine Netw, 20005 Jun;16(2)):128-34. PMID 15941684. Quote: "Th2-originated IL-4 and IL-5 levels responsible for the allergic inflammatory response in the microenvironment of patients with allergic rhinitis, are decreased with Glucan, while levels of Th1-originated IL-12 are increased. ...eosinophils, which are important effector cells of the inflammatory response, are decreased... ." 

Antibiotics: Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”

Anthrax – Biological Warfare: Kourmikakis B, et al, “Anthrax-protective effects of yeast beta 1,3 glucans.” MedGenMed, 2003 Mar 21,5(1):1; PMD 12827062. Quote: “A single injected dose of ... beta glucan immune modulators given 2 days before challenge significantly: (a) increased the survival rate of infected mice (2.5-fold), (b) diminished the bacterial load in the lungs of infected mice (4-8-fold), and (c) increased the proportion of bacteria-free animals 10 days after challenge (2-fold).  In mice prophylactically administered oral ... beta glucan for 1 week prior to infection, survival increased from 50% to 100%; therapeutic administration of oral ... beta glucan for 10 days post infection increased survival from 30% up to 90% in treatment groups.

These results demonstrate the potential for beta1,3-glucan immune modulators to provide a significant degree of protection against anthrax, a potential biological warfare (BW) agent in a mouse model of anthrax infection.”

Antimicrobial Activity: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'" Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: "...Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity... . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influence the development of adaptive immunity..."

Antimicrobial Activity: Hunter K, Washburn R, “Efficacy of topical antimicrobial acid and immunostimulatory B-Glucan in Animal Models of Cutaneous Infection,” U Nevada Medical School-Applied Res Grant, Aug 1998.  Quote: “…the B-glucans have been shown to activate macrophages to enhance their antimicrobial activity.  Our laboratory has developed preliminary evidence that B-1,3/1,6 glucans possesses immunostimulatory activity for macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of the Th-1 cytokines IL-1 B, IL-12, and TNF-µ.”

Antioxidant – See Also Free Radical Scavenging

Cancer: Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; "Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?" Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008. Quote: "...yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) ...and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities...and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy."

Antioxidants: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Antioxidants: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Antioxidants: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Antioxidant: : Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Antioxidant: Kayali H, Ozdag MF, Kahraman S, Aydin A, Gonul E, Sayal A, Odabasi Z, Timurkaynak E.; The antioxidant effect of beta-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.” Dept Neurosurgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; Neurosurg Rev. Apr 30 2005; Quote: According to our results, beta-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation in spinal cord injury.”

Anthrax: Vetvicka V, Terayama K, Ostroff G et al; “Orally-administered Yeast B1,3-glucan prophylactically protects against anthrax infection and cancer in mice.” J of the Amer Nutraceutical Assc; Vol 5-2, pp1-20; Spring 2002. Quote: “…orally-administered yeast B1,3-glucan had significant effects as a prophylactic [taken regularly for a period before condition onset] treatment to reduce the mortality of anthrax infection in mice. The mechanism of action involves the stimulation of three important cytokines: IL-2, IFN-y, and TNF-alpha.”

Arthritis: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Isolation of a Yeast Heptaglucoside that Inhibits Monocyte Phagocytosis  of Zymosan Particles”. The Journal of Immunology; 142:959-965. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1989.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3-and 1,6  glycosidic linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungal cell walls and are active pharmacologic agents in host defense systems of plants and animals….The administration of particulate glucans from S. cerevisiae to laboratory animals induces host resistance to a variety of lethal pathogens by mechanisms involving macrophage stimulation.

In vitro studies reveal that bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes possess Beta-glucan receptors that mediate phagocytosis of glucan particles and induce release of proinflammatory mediators…”

Artherogenic progression: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality."  U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: "consumption of ...yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels...highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice.."

Asthma: Sarinho E, Medeiros D, Schor D, Silva A R, Sales V, Mottta ME, Costa A, Azoubel A, Rizzo JA; "Production of interleukin-10 [anti-inflammatory cytokine] in asthmatic children after Beta-1-3 glucan;" Allergol Immuopathol (Madr): PMID 19912977; Vol 37, Num 4:188-92, July-Aug 2009. Quote: "An experimental study carried out using a murine respiratory model detected...an increase in Interleukin-10 (IL-10 anti-inflammatory) after glucan use. This open, exploratory study with blind outcome evaluation included asthmatic children between 6 and 12 years of age with mild to moderate persistent asthma and inadequate disease control. ...Beta-1-3-glucan has been proving itself to be a medication with a powerful action on interferon-gamma production, in stimulating macrophages and in its differentiation to antigen-presenting cells.

Macrophages are able of modulating the immune response because they secrete anti-inflammatory mediators such as Prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), Tumor Growth Factor (TGE-a) and IL-10.  As such, Beta-1-3-glucan can act as a macrophage stimulant and prevent the appearance of a Th2 response. ...In an animal model a single high dose of Beta-1-3-glucan has been related to an improvement in asthma and pulmonary function abnormalities."

Atherosclerosis: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “Beta 1,3 glucan has proven to both stimulate and activate the macrophage cells,…People with high risk of atherosclerosis should definitely add beta 1,3 glucan to their diet in addition to any cholesterol-reducing drugs. [Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries.

Atherosclerotic Complications: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” Immunology Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote: "Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants  in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions."

Atopic Dermatitus - Jesenak M, Urbancek S, et al, "B-Glucan-based cream in supportive treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis," J Dermatolog Treat. 1-10, December 2015.PMID:26654776;  Quote: "Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases with serious impact on quality of life. B-Glucans are natural substances with potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Topical B-glucan application resulted in the significant improvement of both objective and subjective symptoms of Atopic dermatitis (AD). On the application side, significant decline in the number of days with Atopic dermatitis exacerbation and severity was observed."

Auto-Immune Disorders – See Diabetes:  Rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythrematosus, glomerulonephritis, scleroderma, multiple schlerosis and diabetes mellitus sufferers should consult their physician before using any immune response potentiator and then use only in accord with physician instruction.

Bacteria: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Bacterial Infection: Vural KD, Uslu H, Keles ON, Unal B, Alp HH, “Investigation of the protective effects of beta-D-glucan against invasive encapsulated Streptococcus pneumonia sepsis in splenectomized rats.” Mikrobiyol Bul, Jul: 49(3):314-26, 2015.  PMID 26313274. Quote: “The most common species which are responsible for sepsis are encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. …b-D-glucan [BDG] … shows immunomodulatory activity, by enhancing the resistance of the host against microbial agents, and promotes phagocytic and proliferative activities of reticuloendothelial system [phagocytic cells including macrophages and monocytes involved in the immune system].BDG, ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups had statistically significant decrease in the amount of bacteria in all tissues when compared to the sepsis group (p<0.05). … The data of our study suggests that, BDG [B-D-glucan] alone, an immunomodulatory agent, alone and in combination with ceftriaxone can reverse the systemic inflammatory reaction in Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and thereby can reduce multiple organ failure.”

Bacterial Infection: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: "Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing."

Bacterial Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Bacterial Infection: Brown G D, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Bacterial Infection: Franek J, Malina J, Kratka H, “Bacterial infection modulated by glucan: a search for the host defense potentiation mechanisms,” Folia Microbiol (Praha) 37(2): 146-152. 1992.

Bacterial Infections: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989. Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Bacterial Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986.Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens.  Administration of glucan particles …stimulates…proliferation of macrophages and increases in phagocytic and secretory activities of macrophages. …A cascade of interactions and reactions initiated by macrophage regulatory factors can be envisioned to occur and to eventuate in conversion of the glucan-treated host to an arsenal of defense.”

Bacterial Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,” Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Bacterial Infection: Browder W, Williams D, Di Luzio N, et al, “Protective effect of nonspecific immunostimulation in postsplenectomy sepsis,” J Surg Res, Dec:35(6):474-9, 1983 PMID 6656237. Quote:This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyglucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis. ,,, Glucan significantly increased survival in the splenectomy group (75%) compared to controls (27%). … Nonspecific immunostimulation [by a beta-1,3-polyglucose] appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.”

Bacterial Infections: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote: “Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.  These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections."

Bacterial: Jordan F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Bacterial: Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R.: “Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release”, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry; 46:60-68. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1991.* Quote: “Beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives protect mice against otherwise lethal bacterial infections.”

Bacterial: Kimura A, Sherwood R, Goldstein E; “Glucan alteration of pulmonary antibacterial defense.” J Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:1-11. 1983.

Beta Glucan BioActivity:: Vetvicka, V, “Beta Glucan, Natures Secret” , 3rd Edition, Self Published, pp153-154, 2015. Quote: “ ... some companies are selling micronized glucans that are often accompanied by claims that they are more bioavailable.  It might be true.”

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote: The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. ...Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. ...Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity..

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, "Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure" University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated form. Biological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  ...The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, "Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres."  Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: "Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment... . "

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Freitas Jr, RA, "15.4.3.1 Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, and the RES - Macrophages;" Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX 2003. Quote: "The presence and activity of phagocytes is particularly related to the presence of small particles. ...Maximum stimulus occurs at average particle sizes in the 0.1-2.0 [micron] range... Human blood monocytes [macrophage precursors] readily ingest inert 0.39 micron particles, rarely ingest 1.52 micron particles, and never ingest 5.1 micron particles."

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Beta Glucan Microparticles: Baert K, et al, “Duality of B-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants,” Int J Nanomedicine. 11: 2463–2469, May 31, 2016. PMCID:PMC 4898424. Quote: β-glucan microparticles (GPs) are emerging microparticles known for their safety, immunogenicity, and high antigen encapsulation efficiency. These promising antigen carriers are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast).  The resulting GPs [B-glucan microparticles] were hollow and porous biomimetic 2–5 µm [micron] particles consisting of >85% β-1,3-D-glucan polymers (β-glucans), ~2% chitin, and <1% lipids and proteins, with the rest being mostly ash and moisture.

Beta Glucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Beta Glucan Micronization: See Beta Glucan Particle Size and Beta Glucan Microparticles

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Farris E, Brown DM, Ramer-ETait, Pannnier AK, "Miro-and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery" Exp Biol Med (Maywood) pii:1535370216643771; PMID: 27048557; April 4, 2016.  Quote: "In contrast, nanoparticle [micronized] encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses."  [Note: 1,000 nanometers = 1 micron or micrometer]

Beta Glucan Particle Size:: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote: The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. ...Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. ...Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

 

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, "Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure" University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated form. Biological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  ...The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, "Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres."  Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008. PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: "Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment... . "

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote: "...there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.  Compared with the aggregated [5-100 micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. ...Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form"

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. ... The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage. ...As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. ... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size. ...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Beta Glucan Particle Size: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

 

Globular Glucan (μg/ml)

Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml)

Media

Nitric Oxide (μM)

 275

 600

 0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”  

Beta Glucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.” [2,000 nanometers or less]

Beta Gllucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Beta Glucan - Particulate: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'" Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: "...Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity... . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influence the development of adaptive immunity..."

Beta Glucan Particulate: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; "Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity." Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003.  Quote: ".. B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine... .

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Vetvicka, V, “Beta Glucan, Natures Secret” , 3rd Edition, Self Published, pp153-154, 2015. Quote: “...macrophages have glucan receptors the size of only several molecules. Yet they are able to phagocytose material of more than 20% of their own size.  It is apparent that, in the case of macrophages and phagocytosis, size really does not matter ... some companies are selling micronized glucans that are often accompanied by claims that they are more bioavailable.  It might be true.”  [Note: The V Vetvicka' position that beta glucan particle size does not matter in phagocytosis is the position found of only V Vetvicka based on extensive beta glucan' phagocytosis research reviewed with several presented below.]

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote: The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. ...Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. ...Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity..

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, "Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure" University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated form. Biological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  ...The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, "Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres."  Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: "Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment... . "

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Freitas Jr, RA, "15.4.3.1 Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, and the RES - Macrophages;" Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX 2003. Quote: "The presence and activity of phagocytes is particularly related to the presence of small particles. ...Maximum stimulus occurs at average particle sizes in the 0.1-2.0 [micron] range... Human blood monocytes [macrophage precursors] readily ingest  [phagocytize] inert 0.39 micron particles, rarely ingest 1.52 micron particles, and never ingest 5.1 micron particles."

Beta Glucan Phagocytisis: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, "Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material," U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: "...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

Beta Glucan Toxicity: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: "Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer."

BioActivity: See Beta Glucan BioActivity

Biological Warfare - Anthrax:: Kourmikakis B, et al, “Anthrax-protective effects of yeast beta 1,3 glucans.” MedGenMed, 2003 Mar 21,5(1):1; PMD 12827062. Quote: “A single injected dose of ... beta glucan immune modulators given 2 days before challenge significantly: (a) increased the survival rate of infected mice (2.5-fold), (b) diminished the bacterial load in the lungs of infected mice (4-8-fold), and (c) increased the proportion of bacteria-free animals 10 days after challenge (2-fold).  In mice prophylactically administered oral ... beta glucan for 1 week prior to infection, survival increased from 50% to 100%; therapeutic administration of oral ... beta glucan for 10 days post infection increased survival from 30% up to 90% in treatment groups.

These results demonstrate the potential for beta1,3-glucan immune modulators to provide a significant degree of protection against anthrax, a potential biological warfare (BW) agent in a mouse model of anthrax infection.”

 

BioTerrorism - Anthrax: Vetvicka V, Terayama K, Ostroff G et al; “Orally-administered Yeast B1,3-glucan prophylactically protects against anthrax infection and cancer in mice.” J of the Amer Nutraceutical Assc; Vol 5-2, pp1-20; Spring 2002. Quote: “…orally-administered yeast B1,3-glucan had significant effects as a prophylactic [taken regularly for a period before condition onset] treatment to reduce the mortality of anthrax infection in mice. The mechanism of action involves the stimulation of three important cytokines: IL-2, IFN-y, and TNF-alpha.”

Boils: Enhanced Healing of Decubitus Ulcers by Topical Application of Particulate Glucan. Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Summary. 1984.

Bone Marrow - Lymphopenia & Neutropenia:  Sima P, Vetvicka V, et al, "Effects of glucan on bone marrow." Ann Transl Med. Feb; 2(2)18. PMC 4202472; 2014.  Quote: "The extensive research studying various effects of glucans on bone marrow showed significant restoration of both lymphopenia and neutropenia. ... glucan might be widely used as radioprotectant that could mitigate the biological effects of radiation exposure both in cases of radiation accidents or in medically used irradiation. ...they [beta glucans] are inexpensive, generally free from side effects and capable of significant protection against bone marrow damage through restoration of bone marrow cell production. "

Bone Marrow Damage: Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Bone Marrow Injury: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals. Researchers discovered beta-glucan enhances the proliferation of stem cells, promoting white blood cell recovery in bone marrow injury and repair.

Bone Marrow: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, "Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models," The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: "Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies]."

Bone Marrow: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation. “

Bowel Anastomoses : Compton R., Williams D., Browder W., “The beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function on the healing of bowel anastomoses,” Am. Surg. 62:14-18, 1996.

Burn - Oxidative Organ Damage: Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "Thermal injury may lead to systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Cancer -  See also Tumors, Sarcoma, Melanoma, Radiation, Chemotherapy:

Cancer: Saber A, Alipour B, et al: “Cellular and molecular effects of yeast probiotics on cancer,” Crit Rev Microbiol, PMID 27561003, 1-20 Aug 25, 2016; , Quote: “Nonpathogenic yeasts, as members of probiotics family, can be effective on gut microbiota dysbiosis. …Probiotic yeasts influence physiology, metabolism, and immune homeostasis in the colon and contribute to cancer treatment due to possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer properties. This study reviews some of the health-beneficial effects of probiotic yeasts and their biological substances like folic acid and β-glucan on cancer … .”

Cancer – Melanoma: Vetvicka V et al; “Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells;” Anticancer Res,15 Oct;35(10):5287-92. 2015. PMID:26408688  Quote: ...we focused on possible effects of insoluble yeast-derived β-glucan on the growth of melanoma cells. ... glucan supplementation had a strong-positive effect in both reducing [melanoma] tumor weight, lung colonies and overall survival rate of tested animals. In addition, glucan inhibited the damage to blood cells and potentiated the effects of regular chemotherapy.”

Cancer - Ostadrahimi A, Esfahani A, etc, "Effect of Beta glucan on quality of life in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial." Adv Pharm Bull, 2014 Oct; 4 (Suppl 1):471-1. doi: 10.5681/apb.2014.070. Epub Aug 25, 2014; PMID:25364665 PMCID: PMC4213788. Quote: "The findings suggest that Beta glucan may be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy for improving quality of life in breast cancer patients in combination with cancer therapies."

Cancer - Jafaar ZM, Litchfield LM, etc. "B-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression." Int J Oncol, 2014 Apr;44(4):1365-75. doi: PMID 24534923; PMCID:PMC3977804. Quote: "B-D-glucan regulates breast cancer-relevant gene expression and may be useful for inhibiting endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation."

Cancer - Karaca H, Bozkurt O, etc., "Positive effects of oral B-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant FLFOX-4 combination chemotherapy." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(8):3641-4, PMID 24870771. Quote: "Oral mucositis and diarrhea were less common in the B-glucan group.  We conclude that B-glucan can be used to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy. "

Cancer – Aleem E, “B-Glucans and their applications in cancer therapy: focus on human studies,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(5):709-19, Jun 2013. Quote: β-glucans have been used as adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, mainly in the Far East, with a positive effect on patients' survival and quality of life. The mechanism of action is suggested to be through its stimulation of the immune system.

Cancer - Colon - Chen J, et al, “The application of fungal B-glucans for the treatment of colon cancer.” Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):725-30. Jun 2013. PMID:23293888 Quote: Evidence has supported the idea that beta-glucans can decrease the size of xenografted colon cancer tumors via the stimulation of the immune system and direct cytotoxicity.

Beta-glucans can also have synergistic effects with chemotherapeutic agents and other immune stimulators, and an innovative strategy is to use beta-glucans to deliver nanoparticles containing chemotherapeutic agents to the site of the colon cancer and, thus, improve the therapeutic efficacy.

Cancer - Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, etc, "B-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells."  Eur J Immunonl, 2013 May;43(5):1220-30. doi. Quote: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and play a major role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, which hampers effective immuno-therapeutic approaches. B-Glucans have been reported to function as potent immune-modulators to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to their antitumor property. ...thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression."

Cancer - Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: "Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing."

Cancer - LiB, Cai Y, Qi C, etc., "Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer."  Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Nov 1:16(21):5153-64. Quote: "IFN-y [interferon] production of tumor-infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. ...These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy."

Cancer - Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Cancer:- Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM; "The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells." Dept of Pediatrics and Adolescent Med. U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; J Hematol Oncol 2:25; Pub med 19515245; June 10, 2009: Quote: ...beta-glucans...trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive immune responses can be modulated by beta-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis [ingestion of foreign matter including cancer cells]. ...They [beta-glucans] are internalized and fragmented within the cells; then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. ...beta-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency."

Cancer - Immunotherapy: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; "Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy." Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy...Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. ...It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients."

Cancer, Immunotherapy w/ Monoclonal Antibodies and Beta Glucan: Li B, Allendorf DJ, et al; "Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway," J Immunol, Aug 1;177(3): 1651-9 2006. PMID 16849475, Quote: "Anti-tumor mAbs hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. Therefore, there is a need for agents that might amplify the effectiveness of these mAbs. One such agent is beta glucan... . In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. ...These results are important inasmuch as beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer."

Cancer:- Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; "Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?" Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008. Quote: "...yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) ...and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities...and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy."

Cancer: - Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. "Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models." Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Cancer - Breast: Demir G, Klkein HO, Mandel-Molinas N, Tuzuner N; "Beta glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with advanced breast cancer." Istanbul U, Medical Oncology Dept, Turkey; Int Immunopharmacol. 7(1):113-6; PubMed 17161824. Jan 2007. Quote: "In human studies it has been shown that beta glucan has an immunomodulatory effect and can increase the efficacy of the biological therapies in cancer patients. In this prospective clinical trial we assessed in vivo effects of short term oral beta glucan administration on peripheral blood monocytes and their expression of activation markers in patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: 23 female patients with advanced breast cancer were included in the study. ... Sixteen healthy females with a median age of 48 years served as the control group for comparing the initial blood samples. Peripheral blood samples were drawn on day zero and patients started receiving oral 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily. Blood samples were recollected on the 15th day. In the initial samples mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower in the patients with breast cancer (1281+/-306/mm(3) versus 1930+/-573/mm(3), p=0.04).

In the patients with breast cancer, mean monocyte count which was 326+124/mm(3) at the beginning, was increased to 496+194/mm(3) at the 15th day. ...Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.

Cancer:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury. 

Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. ...tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: "Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  ...The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer."

Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, "Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer." Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005. Quote: "Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients."

Cancer: Allendorf DJ, Yan J, Ross GD, Hansen RD, Baran JT, Suffarao K, Wang L, Haribabu B, "C5a-mediated leukotrienes B4-amplified neutrophil chemotaxis is essential in tumor immunotherapy facilitated by anti-tumor antibody and B-glucan." J Immunology: 174:7050-56. 2005

Cancer: Gelderman K, Tomlinson S, Ross G, Gorter A; "Complement function in mAb-mediated cancer immunotherapy." Trends in Immun: Vol 25 No 3, 159-164; March 2004. Quote: "...the use of B-glucan as an adjuvant for mAb [monoclonal antibodies] immunotherapy enables iC3b deposited on tumor cells by mAbs to activate complement [30 proteins circulating in blood plasma] receptor 3 (CR3) on effector cells, thus inducing CR3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [toxic to cells]."

Cancer:: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, "Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models," The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: "Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor [cancer] cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies]."

Cancer: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Cancer: Ross GD, Vetvicka V, et al; "Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer." Dept of Pathology, U of Louisville KY, 42(1-3):61-74; May 1999. Quote: "...the cytotoxic activation of beta-glucan-primed NK cell CR3 by iC3b-opsinized tumors is shown to be accompanied by a tumor-localized secretion of the cytokines TNFalpha, IFNalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-6."

Cancer – Carcinoma-Colon/Liver: “Inhibition of establishment and growth of mouse liver [colon carcinoma] mestastase after treatment with interferon gamma and beta-1,3-D-glucan;"”Hepatology, 27:25, 1241-8. May 1998. Quote: “Combination of IFN-gamma and animated beta-1,3-D glucan (AG) inhibited the growth of liver metastases [of colon carcinoma] almost entirely.”

Cancer –  Carcinoma-Bladder: Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Cancer – Carcinoma of the Breast: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; “Macrophage-mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vitro”.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975. Quote: “The initial 9 patients studied had malignant carcinoma of the breast. Control and experimental lesions were injected; subsequently biopsies were performed at varying intervals for histologic evaluation. Always when glucan or glucan and RF fraction were administered intra-lesionally, the size of the lesion was strikingly reduced in as short a period as 5 days. …In small lesions, resolution was complete, whereas in large lesions, resolutions was partial.”

Cancer – Chemotherapy: Damia, et al, “Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Death in Mice by Recombinate Human Interleukin 1: Protection from Hematological and Nonhematological Toxicities”, Cancer Research, vol. 52, pp. 4082-4089.

Cancer –Llymphoma: Cassone A, Bistoni F., Cenci E, Pesce C., Tissi L., Marconi P., “Immunopotentiation of anticancer chemotherapy by Candida albicans, other yeast and insoluble glucan in an experimental lymphoma model.” Sabouraudia, 20:115-125, 1982.

Cancer – Malignancies: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “The Employment of Glucan and Glucan Activated Macrophages in the Enhancement of Host Resistance to Malignancies in Experimental Animals,” in The Macrophage in Neoplasia; Academic Press, Inc. New York; pp. 181-198. 1976.

Cancer - Lewis Lung Carcinoma: Suzuki, et al, "Inhibition of experimental pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma by orally administered B-glucan in mice., " Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Todyo, 39:1606-1608, 1991. PMID: 1934182..

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980.* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Cancer – Melanoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Ovarian: Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005. Quote:Results: … (1) beta-glucan had cytotoxic effect against human ovarian cancer HRA cells in vitro; (2) beta-glucan promotes p38 MAPK activity for suppressing HRA cell proliferation and amplifying the apoptosis cascade.  Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer-Sarcoma: Sveinbjornsson B, Olsen R, et al, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine met A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.” Biochem Bioophys Res Commun. Jun 25;223(3):643-9; Jun 1996. Quote: “When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A tumor cells. This cytoxicity was associated with a high level of nitric oxide production.”

Cancer – Sarcoma and Melanoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Cancer – Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.* Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Cancer - Radiotherapy: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; "Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice," J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: "Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. ...Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy."

Cancer : Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Over the past 11 months I have been able to convince five out of eight breast cancer patients who were undergoing radiation therapy, to consume one capsule of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan (NSC-24 3 mg) three times per day.  To date, I have observed that none of the patients using NSC-24 have suffered from any type of radiation injury to the skin, while the three patients who chose not to use NSC-24 all show signs of extensive radiation damage to the skin.”

Cancer - Melanoma: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; "Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells," J Anticancer Res, Oct, 35(10):5287-92 , 2015 PMID 26408686 - PubMed-in progress. Quote: "β-Glucan is a natural immunomodulator ...with significant beneficial properties in infectious diseases and cancer therapy. ... we focused on possible effects of insoluble yeast-derived β-glucan on the growth of melanoma cells. ...glucan supplementation had a strong-positive effect in both reducing tumor weight, lung colonies and overall survival rate of tested animals. In addition, glucan inhibited the damage to blood cells and potentiated the effects of regular chemotherapy."

Cancer - Melanoma: Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumor cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabelled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Cancer – Metastasis: Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005.  Quote:Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., et al., Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Water-Insouble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies”. Macrophage-Mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells In Vitro; Inai et al., J. Immunol (1976); 1256-1260. 1976.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; Macrophage-medicated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vivo.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975.

Cancer: Niskanen E.O., Burgaleta C., Cline M.J., Goide D.W.; Effect of glucan, a macrophage activator, on murine hemopoietic cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in mice; Cancer Res 38: 1406-1409, 1978.

Cancer: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Cancer: White Cell Enhancement: DiLuzio N.R., et al., The Macrophage and Cancer, James et al., eds: Edinburgh Univer. Med. Pres.; pp. 181-201. 1977.

Cancer: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Methods and compositions for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of infections,” U.S. Patent 4900722, Issued Feb 13, 1990.  Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for stimulating macrophage cells, either in vivo or in vitro, to produce a cytotoxic/cyctostatic factor effective against cancer cells.” [cytotoxic: toxic to cell - prevents reproduction or growth]

Cancer – Sacrcoma Tumors: Sveinbj B, Seternes O, Seljelid R, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine meth A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 223:3, 643-9. Jun 1996.  Quote: When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta 1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A [sarcoma] tumor cells.”

Cancer: Williams D.L., et al.; Curr. Chemotherapy  and Infectious Disease, Proc.; 11th 1CC and 19th 1ICAAC pp. 1724-1726. 1980.

Candida albicans, Staphyloccoccus  and Infectious Challenge: Rice PJ, Adams EL, Ozment-Skelton T, Gonzales A, Goldman MP, Lockhart BE, Barker LA, Breuel KF, Deponti WK, Kalbfleisch JH, Ensley HE, Brown GD, Gordon S, Williams DL.; “Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.” East Tennessee State University. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Jun 23, 2005. Quote: ”Oral glucan administration also increased survival in mice challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans …[and] increase[s] IL-12 expression and induce[s] protection against infectious challenge.”

Candida albicans: Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Underhill DM. “Dectin-1 mediates macrophage recognition of Candida albicans yeast but not filaments”; The Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Embo J; 23:24(6):1277.86, Mar 2005; Quote: “Dectin-1 is a receptor that binds beta-glucans and is important for macrophage phagocytosis of fungi. … the normal mechanisms of yeast budding and cell separation create permanent scars which expose sufficient beta-glucan to trigger antimicrobial responses through Dectin-1, including phagocytosis and activation of reactive oxygen production [anti-oxidant - free radical neutralization].”

Candida Albicans: Browder IW., et al., “Modification of Post-Operative C. albicas Sepis by Glucan Immunostimulation,” Int. J. Immunopharmac.; 6:19-26. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA;  PubMed 6724765. 1984. Quote: “Protection against C. albicans was observed in the glucan-treated groups. ...glucan increased survival and reduced renal pathology associated with C. albicans challenge in the post-operative period. These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post-operative infections.”

Candida Albicans: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Phagocytosis of heat-killed blastophores of Candida albicans by human monocytes beta-glucan receptors.”  Immunology. 65:181-185. 1988.

Candidiasis: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., Cook J.L., Hoffman E.O.; Protective effect of glucan in experimentally induced candidiasis; J Reticuloendothel Soc 53: 479-490, Pubmed 702473. 1978.

Candidiasis: Bonfim-Mendonca Pde S, et al; "B-Glucan Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neutrophils to Improve the Killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Isolates from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis; PLoS One (Public Library of Science), 9(9):e107805. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107805. eCollection 2014. Sep 17, 2014. Quote: "B-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that B-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal [microbe destroying] response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis."

Carcinoma - Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. "Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models." Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Carcinoma – Bladder:  Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Carcinoma - Mammary: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Chemotherapy – See also Radiation

Chemotherapy - Karaca H, Bozkurt O, etc., "Positive effects of oral B-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant FLFOX-4 combination chemotherapy." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(8):3641-4, PMID 24870771. Quote: "Oral mucositis and diarrhea were less common in the B-glucan group.  We conclude that B-glucan can be used to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy. " [Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract-an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.]

Chemotherapy: Hofer M, Pospisil M, "Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by B-glucans: a review." Molecules, Sep 15;16(9): 7969-79. PubMed 21921869. 2011. Quote: "B-glucans have been shown to support murine hematopoiesis suppressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy [chemotherapy]. They also enhance stem cell homing and engraftment.  Note: "Hematopoiesis" is the process of creating new blood cells in the body. All blood cells start off as hematopoietic stem cells, and then specialize or differentiate into myeloid cells including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, or eosinophils; or lymphoid cells including T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.

Chemotherapy - Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: B-Glucans work, in part, by stimulating the innate immune mechanism to fight a range of foreign challenges and could be used as an adjuvant, in combination with anti-infective or antineoplastic agents, radiotherapy, an a range of topical agents and nutrients." [Note: "antineoplastic agents" inhibit the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells including chemotherapy drugs]

Chemotherapy: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Chemotherapy: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens [chemotherapy components]. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury. 

Chemotherapy: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Chemotherapy: Tohamy AA et al. "Beta-glucan inhibits the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and cisplatin." Mutat. Research. 541(1-2):45-53. Nov 2003. Quote: "This protective effect of beta-glucan could be attributed to its scavenging ability to trap free-radicals produced during the biotransformation of these anti-neoplastic [abnormal tissue growth] drugs. Beta-glucan also markedly restored the mitotic [cell division] activity of bone marrow cells that had been suppressed by the anti-neoplastic drugs. These results indicate that in addition to known immunopotentiating activity of beta-glucan, it plays a role in reducing genotoxicity [capability to cause cancer] induced by anti-neoplastic [abnormal tissue growth] drugs during cancer chemotherapy."

Chemotherapy: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause ...; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Chemotherapy: Damia, et al, “Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Death in Mice by Recombinate Human Interleukin 1: Protection from Hematological and Nonhematological Toxicities”, Cancer Research, vol. 52, pp. 4082-4089.

Chemotherapy - Leukemia: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors”, Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Children/Pediatrics: Li F, Jin X, Liu B, Zhuang W, Scalabrin D, "Follow-up Formula Consumption [FUF] in 3- to 4-Year-OLds and [Acute] Respiratory Infections [ARI]: an RCT." , Pediatrics. 133(6):e1533-40. Jun 2014. Quote: "...Our objective was to determine if a follow-up formula (FUF) containing DHA,...prebiotics.. and yeast B-glucan affects incidence of respiratory infections ... in healthy children."  The study was, "...a double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial, 3-4 year old children. ...Daily consumption of a FUF was associated with fewer episodes and shorter duration of ARI [ acute respiratory infections], as well as less antibiotic use. 

Cholesterol - Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: "Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing."

Cholesterol: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the  body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Cholesterol: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality."  U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: "consumption of ...yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels...highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice.."

Cholesterol: Naumann E, Van Rees AB, Onning G, Oste R, Wydra M, Mensink RP; “Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.” American J Clin Nutr:83(3):601-5. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands. March 2006. Quote: "beta-Glucan can reduce serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. …: Beta-glucan lowers serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol when incorporated into a fruit drink. A reduced cholesterol absorption contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan without affecting plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants."

Cholesterol Control: Robert Nicolosi, Stacey J Bell, Bruce R Bistrian, Isaac Greenberg, R Armour Forse and George L Blackburn, "Cholesterol Benefits from Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Purified from Yeast Cell Wall," Nutrition and Infection Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; the Centers for the Study of Nutrition and Medicine and for Nutritional Research, and Clowes Surgical Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 208-212, August 1999. PubMed 10426696 Quote: "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men. ... The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations and was well tolerated…The link between elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the risk of developing coronary artery disease has been clearly established…Elevated plasma cholesterol and, in particular, LDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, whereas an elevated of HDL-cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular…The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber lowered total cholesterol and raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly. …

Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration.Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products."

Cholesterol Control: Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, Arnold AH, Ostroff G, Forse RA, "Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids [cholesterol included],"  Critical  Rev Food Science Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 39(2):189-202, March 1999: Quote: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S.  One way to reduce the risk of developing the disease is to lower serum cholesterol levels by making dietary changes. In addition to reducing intake of total fat, saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol can be further reduced by added fiber, especially from sources rich in beta-glucan. ...The yeast-derived fiber is a more concentrated source of beta-glucan than the oat product."   

Chromoblastomycosis - Fungal Skin Disease: Silva E, Azevedo CD, et al; "The use of glucan as immunostimulant in the treatment of a severe case of chromoblastomycosis" [chronic fungal skin disease]; Dept. of Patologia [Pathology], U Federal do Maranhao Maranhao, Brazil; Mycoses, April 26, 2008; Quote: "We report the case of an alternative treatment for a patient with a severe form of chromoblastomycosis that responded poorly to the traditional antifungal therapy. We hereby show, in this study, the improvement of lesions after treatment with itraconazole associated with an intra muscular administration of glucan. We observed that the regression of lesions was associated with an improvement of the cellular immune response."

Chronic Fatique Syndrome: Uchida, A.; “Method for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome,” U.S. Patent 5424300 (A method for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, comprising administering a polysaccharide  which further contains a .beta(1-3)glucan.-1,3/1,6-glucoside bond). Issued June 13, 1995.

Colds: Stier H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, “Immne-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan,” Nutr J 13:38, 2014. PMCID: PMC 4012169. Quote:In contrast, a lower susceptibility to cold episodes reflects an improved defense against infections and, hence, a properly functioning immune system. Therefore, common cold is widely used as a proper model to investigate potential immune-modulating properties of natural substances, including β-glucans. ...Two independent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that daily oral administration of the proprietary insoluble (1,3)-(1,6)-β-glucan, derived from brewers’ yeast, reduced the incidence of common cold episodes during the cold season in otherwise healthy subjects....During the most intense infection season, the β-glucan group had significantly less infections compared to placebo. Ingestion of β-glucans significantly reduced the typical cold symptoms. ...The second trial with 162 participants confirmed these results, as the number of cold episodes was reduced by 25% in the β-glucan group, compared to the placebo group. Moreover, the authors reported a milder progression of severe common cold episodes in subjects supplemented with β-glucans. Also, sleeping difficulties, regarded as a side effect of a cold infection, were improved by the supplementation of β-glucan”

Colds / Pathogens: Aulinger A, Riede L, Bothe G, Busch R, Gruenwald J, "Yeast (1,3)-(1-6)-beta-glucan helps to maintain the body's defense against pathogens: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric study in healthy subjects [162]. " Eur J Nutr, 52: 1913-1918; Jan 23, 2013. PMID 233340963. Quote: "...supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1-6)-beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25% as compared to placebo. ...Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episode...the yeast beta-glucan preparation increased the body's potential to defend against invading pathogens."

Colds/Flu: McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, “Baker’s yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA [immunoglobulin] and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise,” J Diet Suppl  10(3):171-83, Sept 2013. PMID: 23927572. Quote: “BG [beta glucan] was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA [immunoglobulin A].”  Note: Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes.

Colorectal Surgery: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.”  World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006.  Quote: "… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.

Coronary Artery Disease:

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting:  Asrsaether E, Rydningen M, et al; "Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting." Dept of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ Hosp of N Norway, Norway. Sand Cardiovasc J. 40(5):298-304; PubMed 17012141. Oct 2006. Quote: "...The aims of the present study were to examine the safety of pretreatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to investigate whether beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment could suppress inflammatory response and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury following CABG.  ......Twenty one patients scheduled for CABG were assigned to oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucan 700 mg (Group 1) or 1 400 mg (Group 2) five consecutive days before surgery and were compared with a control group (Group 3). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and on the first, third and fifth postoperative day for analysis of acute-phase reactants, hematology, cytokines and myocardial enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment is safe in patients undergoing CABG [Coronary artery bypass grafting] and may protect against ischemia reperfusion injury following CABG.

Coronary Artery Disease - Cholesterol Control: Robert Nicolosi, Stacey J Bell, Bruce R Bistrian, Isaac Greenberg, R Armour Forse and George L Blackburn, "Cholesterol Benefits from Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Purified from Yeast Cell Wall," Nutrition and Infection Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; the Centers for the Study of Nutrition and Medicine and for Nutritional Research, and Clowes Surgical Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 208-212, August 1999. Quote: "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men. ... The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations and was well tolerated…The link between elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the risk of developing coronary artery disease has been clearly established…Elevated plasma cholesterol and, in particular, LDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, whereas an elevated of HDL-cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with the incidence of cardiovascularThe yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber lowered total cholesterol and raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly. …

Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration.Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products."

Cytokine Release: Beta(1-3)glucan: “I1-1 Cytokine Release after Oral Application in Mice”. Baylor College of Medicine. Research Report. 1994.  

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The Beta Glucan Research Organization is a non-commercial entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation, the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker's yeast-derived beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a specially processed proprietary form of microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated purified Beta 1,3-D glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage that does not reaggregate after the digestive process.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). “Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides.

Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.  Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley, minimally effective in immune potentiation and not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.  Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations.

© Copyright 2001-2016 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.



 
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