"A" - "C" Research   
Home "A" - "C" Research "D" - "H" Research "I" - "P" Research "R" - "Z" Research Search Research History FDA G.R.A.S. Beta Glucan Links

Beta Glucan Research Presented by Condition with Quotes as a Non Commercial Site

Home
"A" - "C" Research
"D" - "H" Research
"I" - "P" Research
"R" - "Z" Research
Search
Research History
FDA G.R.A.S.
Beta Glucan Links

Beta Glucan Research – Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives

Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References

"A" through "C"

"Abdominal Adhesions" through "Cytokine Release" (Including "Bacterial Infection", "Cancer," "Chemotherapy" and "Cholesterol")

Abdominal Adhesions: Almdahl SM,  Seljelid R; “Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions,” Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 1987.*

Abdominal Sepsis: Lahnborg, et al., “Glucan-Induced Enhancement of Host Resistance in Experimental Intraabdominal Sepis”. Eur. Surg. Res.; 401-408. 1982.*

Acetaminophen Liver Toxicity: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Acute Renal Failure (Nephropathy-Contrast Induced): Koc E, Reis KA, Ebinc FA, Pasaoglu H, Demirtas C, Omeroglu S, Derici UB, Erten Y, Bali M Arinsov T, Sindel S; "Protective effect of beta-glucan on contrast induced-nephropathy [acute renal failure] and a comparison of beta-glucan with nebivolol and N-acetylcysteine in rats." Dept of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey; Clin Exp Nephrol, Apr 26 2011. Quote: "...beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...This study suggest that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy [renal failure]."

Adjuvant: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; "Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate." Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23, 2011: "B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. ...Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages....Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro.  Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression."

Adjuvant - Immunizations: Hunter KW Jr, Berner VK, Sura ME; "Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations," Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, U of Nev Sch of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; PuMed 18677470; Epub Aug 2, 2008: Quote: "Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG)...we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. ...When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund's adjuvant....These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carabondiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens."

Adjuvant - Hyperbaric oxygen: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.”  World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006.  Quote: "… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.

Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Browder IW., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., DiLuzio N., “Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis”, Surgery 102 (2): 206-214.  1987.

Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intraabdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan), J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998.Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”

Adjuvant:-Antibiotics Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,”Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”

Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989.

Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Adjuvant – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: "Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life."

Adjuvant : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; Clinical experiences with the use of glucan. Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Adjuvant: Benach J.L., et al., “Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial,” Infection and Immunity, 35(3):947-951. 1982.  Quote: “These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis.”

Adjuvant: Ber L., “Yeast-derived beta-1,3-D-glucan: An adjuvant concept,” American Journal of Natural Medicine; Vol 4, No. 9, Nov 1997.

Adjuvant: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan drug delivery system and adjuvant,” U.S.Patent 5607677. Issued March 4, 1997.*

Adjuvant: Lahnborg G., Hedstrom K.G., Nord C.E.; “The Effect of Glucan - A Host Resistance Activator and Ampicillin on Experimental Intraabdominal Sepsis”. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 32: 347-353. 1982.*  Quote: “It is concluded that glucan, in combination with ampicillin, has a significant effect on the survival rate of rats with induced peritonitis, probably by enhancing the activities of the reticuloendothelial system, an important part of the total host resistance.”

Adjuvant: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors”, Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Adjuvant: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar.  11:403-410. 1989.

Adjuvants: Audibert FM, Lise LD; “Adjuvants: Current status , clinical perspectives, and future prospects;” Immunol. Today 14:281-284; 1993.

Adjuvant-Surgical Therapy: Compton R, Williams D, Browder W; “The beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function on the healing of bowel anastomoses,” Am Surg, 62:1,14-8. Jan 1996. Quote:  “immuno-pharmacologic agents [glucan] that enhance macrophage function may be an important adjunct to surgical therapy requiring bowel anastomosis.”

Aging – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: "Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU),   … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life."

Aging : Carrow, D.J. MD.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “…beta 1,3-glucan may well be the first and only true anti-aging supplement available to all of us.”

Aging: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause ...; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Aging: Gilcrest B, Murphy G, Soter N; “Effect of Chronologic Ageing and U.V. Irradiation on Langerhans Cells in Human Epidermis;” J. Investigative Dermatology; Vol 79:85-88. 1982.

Aging: Inamuzu T., Chang M.P., Makinodan T.; “Influence of Age on the Production and Regulation of Interleukin-1 in Mice”, Immunology; V.55, p.447-455. 1985.*

Aging: Makinodan T, Kay M; “Age Influence on the Immune System,” Advances in Immunology;  Vol 29:287-330. 1980.

Aging: Marguerite MB: “An Overview of Aging. Mechanisms of Aging and Development.” pp 39-59. 1979.

Aging: Olmos JM, de Dies B, Garcia JD et al; “Monocyte Function in the Elderly.” Allergol Immunopathol. (Madrid, Spain); 14(5):369-373. 1986.

Aging: Price GB, Makinodan T: “Immunologic deficiencies in senescence.” J. of Immunol.; 108(2):403-412. 1972.

Agrewala JN, et al, “Differential effect of anti-B7-1 and anti-M150 antibodies in restricting the delivery of costimulatory signals from B cells and macrophages;” J. Immunol. 160:1067-1077; 1998.

Antibiotics: Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”

Antimicrobial Activity: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'" Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: "...Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity... . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influence the development of adaptive immunity..."

Antimicrobial Activity: Hunter K, Washburn R, “Efficacy of topical antimicrobial acid and immunostimulatory B-Glucan in Animal Models of Cutaneous Infection,” U Nevada Medical School-Applied Res Grant, Aug 1998.  Quote: “…the B-glucans have been shown to activate macrophages to enhance their antimicrobial activity.  Our laboratory has developed preliminary evidence that B-1,3/1,6 glucans possesses immunostimulatory activity for macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of the Th-1 cytokines IL-1 B, IL-12, and TNF-µ.”

Antioxidant – See Also Free Radical Scavenging

Cancer: Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; "Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?" Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008. Quote: "...yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) ...and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities...and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy."

Antioxidants: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Antioxidants: Toklu HZ, Sehirili AO, Velioglu-Ogunc A, Centinel S, Sener G; “Acetaminophen-induced toxicity is prevented by beta-d-glucan treatment in mice.” European J Pharmacology; 543(1-3):133-40; Epub 2006 Jun; Jun 2, 2006.  Quote: “The protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen [Tylenol, Anacin 3, Tempra, Datril] was studied in mice liver…Acetaminophen caused a significant decrease in the GSH level of the tissue, which was accompanied with significant increases in the hepatic luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence values, malondialdehyde level, MPO activity and collagen content. Similarly, serum ALT, AST levels, as well as LDH and TNF-alpha, were elevated in the acetaminophen-treated groupbeta-d-glucan treatment reversed all of these [liver toxicity] biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by acetaminophen. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-d-glucan exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing acetaminophen toxicity.”

Antioxidants: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Antioxidant: : Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

Antioxidant: Kayali H, Ozdag MF, Kahraman S, Aydin A, Gonul E, Sayal A, Odabasi Z, Timurkaynak E.; The antioxidant effect of beta-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.” Dept Neurosurgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; Neurosurg Rev. Apr 30 2005; Quote: According to our results, beta-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation in spinal cord injury.”

Anthrax: Vetvicka V, Terayama K, Ostroff G et al; “Orally-administered Yeast B1,3-glucan prophylactically protects against anthrax infection and cancer in mice.” J of the Amer Nutraceutical Assc; Vol 5-2, pp1-20; Spring 2002. Quote: “…orally-administered yeast B1,3-glucan had significant effects as a prophylactic [taken regularly for a period before condition onset] treatment to reduce the mortality of anthrax infection in mice. The mechanism of action involves the stimulation of three important cytokines: IL-2, IFN-y, and TNF-alpha.”

Arthritis: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Isolation of a Yeast Heptaglucoside that Inhibits Monocyte Phagocytosis  of Zymosan Particles”. The Journal of Immunology; 142:959-965. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1989.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3-and 1,6  glycosidic linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungal cell walls and are active pharmacologic agents in host defense systems of plants and animals….The administration of particulate glucans from S. cerevisiae to laboratory animals induces host resistance to a variety of lethal pathogens by mechanisms involving macrophage stimulation.

In vitro studies reveal that bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes possess Beta-glucan receptors that mediate phagocytosis of glucan particles and induce release of proinflammatory mediators…”

Artherogenic progression: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality."  U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: "consumption of ...yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels...highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice.."

Arthereoschlerosis: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,”  U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “Beta 1,3 glucan has proven to both stimulate and activate the macrophage cells,…People with high risk of atherosclerosis should definitely add beta 1,3 glucan to their diet in addition to any cholesterol-reducing drugs.

Auto-Immune Disorders – See Diabetes:  Rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythrematosus, glomerulonephritis, scleroderma, multiple schlerosis and diabetes mellitus sufferers should consult their physician before using any immune response potentiator and then use only in accord with physician instruction.

 

Bacteria: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Bacterial Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."

Bacterial Infection: Brown G D, Gordon S; "Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: "The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them."

Bacterial Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986.

Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens.

 Administration of glucan particles …stimulates…proliferation of macrophages and increases in phagocytic and secretory activities of macrophages. …A cascade of interactions and reactions initiated by macrophage regulatory factors can be envisioned to occur and to eventuate in conversion of the glucan-treated host to an arsenal of defense.”

Bacterial Infection: Franek J, Malina J, Kratka H, “Bacterial infection modulated by glucan: a search for the host defense potentiation mechanisms,” Folia Microbiol (Praha) 37(2): 146-152. 1992.

Bacterial Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,” Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Bacterial: Jordan F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Bacterial: Kimura A, Sherwood R, Goldstein E; “Glucan alteration of pulmonary antibacterial defense.” J Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:1-11. 1983.

Bacterial: Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R.: “Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release”, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry; 46:60-68. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1991.* Quote: “Beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives protect mice against otherwise lethal bacterial infections.”

Bacterial Infections: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote:

“Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.  These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections."

Bacterial Infections: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989. Quote:

“This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Beta Glucan - Particulate: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'" Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: "...Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity... . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influence the development of adaptive immunity..."

Beta Glucan Particulate: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; "Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity." Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003.  Quote: ".. B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine... .

Beta Glucan Toxicity: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.

Boils: Enhanced Healing of Decubitus Ulcers by Topical Application of Particulate Glucan. Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Summary. 1984.

Bone Marrow Damage: Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Bone Marrow Injury: Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun Yan; Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;” Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation] following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals. Researchers discovered beta-glucan enhances the proliferation of stem cells, promoting white blood cell recovery in bone marrow injury and repair.

Bone Marrow: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, "Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models," The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: "Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies]."

Bone Marrow: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.;  Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation. “

Bowel Anastomoses : Compton R., Williams D., Browder W., “The beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function on the healing of bowel anastomoses,” Am. Surg. 62:14-18, 1996.

Burn - Oxidative Organ Damage: Toklu HZ, Sener G, "Beta-glucan protects against burn-induced oxidative organ damage in rats," Int. Immunopharmacol; 6(2):156-69, Marmara U., Istanbul, Turkey; Epub Aug 2005/Feb 2006. Quote: "Thermal injury may lead to systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. The results indicate that both systemic and local administration of beta-glucan were effective against burn-induced oxidative tissue damage in the rat.  Beta-glucan, besides their immunomodulatory effects, have additional antioxidant properties.  Therefore, beta-glucans merit consideration as therapeutic agents in the treatment of burn injuries."

 

Cancer -  See also Tumors, Sarcoma, Melanoma, Radiation, Chemotherapy:

Cancer: Vetvicka V; "Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug," World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote: "The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established."

Cancer: Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM; "The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells." Dept of Paediatrics and Adolescent Med. U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; J Hematol Oncol 2:25; Pub med 19515245; June 10, 2009: Quote: ...beta-glucans...trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive immune responses can be modulated by beta-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis [ingestion of foreign matter including cancer cells]. ...They [beta-glucans] are internalized and fragmented within the cells; then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. ...beta-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency."

Cancer - Immunotherapy: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; "Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy." Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy...Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. ...It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients."

Cancer: Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; "Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?" Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008. Quote: "...yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) ...and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities...and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy."

Cancer: Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. "Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models." Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Cancer - Breast: Demir G, Klkein HO, Mandel-Molinas N, Tuzuner N; "Beta glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with advanced breast cancer." Istanbul U, Medical Oncology Dept, Turkey; Int Immunopharmacol. 7(1):113-6; PubMed 17161824. Jan 2007. Quote: "In human studies it has been shown that beta glucan has an immunomodulatory effect and can increase the efficacy of the biological therapies in cancer patients. In this prospective clinical trial we assessed in vivo effects of short term oral beta glucan administration on peripheral blood monocytes and their expression of activation markers in patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: 23 female patients with advanced breast cancer were included in the study. ... Sixteen healthy females with a median age of 48 years served as the control group for comparing the initial blood samples. Peripheral blood samples were drawn on day zero and patients started receiving oral 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily. Blood samples were recollected on the 15th day. In the initial samples mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower in the patients with breast cancer (1281+/-306/mm(3) versus 1930+/-573/mm(3), p=0.04).

In the patients with breast cancer, mean monocyte count which was 326+124/mm(3) at the beginning, was increased to 496+194/mm(3) at the 15th day. ...Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.

Cancer:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. ...tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: "Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  ...The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer."

Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, "Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer." Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005. Quote: "Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients."

Cancer: Allendorf DJ, Yan J, Ross GD, Hansen RD, Baran JT, Suffarao K, Wang L, Haribabu B, "C5a-mediated leukotrienes B4-amplified neutrophil chemotaxis is essential in tumor immunotherapy facilitated by anti-tumor antibody and B-glucan." J Immunology: 174:7050-56. 2005

Cancer: Gelderman K, Tomlinson S, Ross G, Gorter A; "Complement function in mAb-mediated cancer immunotherapy." Trends in Immun: Vol 25 No 3, 159-164; March 2004. Quote: "...the use of B-glucan as an adjuvant for mAb [monoclonal antibodies] immunotherapy enables iC3b deposited on tumor cells by mAbs to activate complement [30 proteins circulating in blood plasma] receptor 3 (CR3) on effector cells, thus inducing CR3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [toxic to cells]."

Cancer:: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, "Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models," The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: "Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor [cancer] cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies]."

Cancer: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote:MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Cancer: Ross GD, Vetvicka V, et al; "Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer." Dept of Pathology, U of Louisville KY, 42(1-3):61-74; May 1999. Quote: "...the cytotoxic activation of beta-glucan-primed NK cell CR3 by iC3b-opsinized tumors is shown to be accompanied by a tumor-localized secretion of the cytokines TNFalpha, IFNalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-6."

Cancer – Carcinoma-Colon/Liver: “Inhibition of establishment and growth of mouse liver [colon carcinoma] mestastase after treatment with interferon gamma and beta-1,3-D-glucan;"”Hepatology, 27:25, 1241-8. May 1998. Quote: “Combination of IFN-gamma and animated beta-1,3-D glucan (AG) inhibited the growth of liver metastases [of colon carcinoma] almost entirely.”

Cancer –  Carcinoma-Bladder: Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Cancer – Carcinoma of the Breast: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; “Macrophage-mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vitro”.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975. Quote: “The initial 9 patients studied had malignant carcinoma of the breast. Control and experimental lesions were injected; subsequently biopsies were performed at varying intervals for histologic evaluation. Always when glucan or glucan and RF fraction were administered intra-lesionally, the size of the lesion was strikingly reduced in as short a period as 5 days. …In small lesions, resolution was complete, whereas in large lesions, resolutions was partial.”

Cancer – Chemotherapy: Damia, et al, “Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Death in Mice by Recombinate Human Interleukin 1: Protection from Hematological and Nonhematological Toxicities”, Cancer Research, vol. 52, pp. 4082-4089.

Cancer –Llymphoma: Cassone A, Bistoni F., Cenci E, Pesce C., Tissi L., Marconi P., “Immunopotentiation of anticancer chemotherapy by Candida albicans, other yeast and insoluble glucan in an experimental lymphoma model.” Sabouraudia, 20:115-125, 1982.

Cancer – Malignancies: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “The Employment of Glucan and Glucan Activated Macrophages in the Enhancement of Host Resistance to Malignancies in Experimental Animals,” in The Macrophage in Neoplasia; Academic Press, Inc. New York; pp. 181-198. 1976.

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980.* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Cancer – Melanoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Ovarian: Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005. Quote:Results: … (1) beta-glucan had cytotoxic effect against human ovarian cancer HRA cells in vitro; (2) beta-glucan promotes p38 MAPK activity for suppressing HRA cell proliferation and amplifying the apoptosis cascade.  Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer-Sarcoma: Sveinbjornsson B, Olsen R, et al, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine met A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.” Biochem Bioophys Res Commun. Jun 25;223(3):643-9; Jun 1996. Quote: “When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A tumor cells. This cytoxicity was associated with a high level of nitric oxide production.”

Cancer – Sarcoma and Melanoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Cancer – Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.* Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Cancer - Radiotherapy: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; "Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice," J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: "Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. ...Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy."

Cancer : Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Over the past 11 months I have been able to convince five out of eight breast cancer patients who were undergoing radiation therapy, to consume one capsule of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan (NSC-24 3 mg) three times per day.  To date, I have observed that none of the patients using NSC-24 have suffered from any type of radiation injury to the skin, while the three patients who chose not to use NSC-24 all show signs of extensive radiation damage to the skin.”

Cancer - Melanoma: Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumor cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabelled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Cancer – Metastasis: Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005.  Quote:Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., et al., Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Water-Insouble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies”. Macrophage-Mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells In Vitro; Inai et al., J. Immunol (1976); 1256-1260. 1976.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; Macrophage-medicated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vivo.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975.

Cancer: Niskanen E.O., Burgaleta C., Cline M.J., Goide D.W.; Effect of glucan, a macrophage activator, on murine hemopoietic cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in mice; Cancer Res 38: 1406-1409, 1978.

Cancer: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Cancer: White Cell Enhancement: DiLuzio N.R., et al., The Macrophage and Cancer, James et al., eds: Edinburgh Univer. Med. Pres.; pp. 181-201. 1977.

Cancer: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Methods and compositions for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of infections,” U.S. Patent 4900722, Issued Feb 13, 1990.  Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for stimulating macrophage cells, either in vivo or in vitro, to produce a cytotoxic/cyctostatic factor effective against cancer cells.” [cytotoxic: toxic to cell - prevents reproduction or growth]

Cancer – Sacrcoma Tumors: Sveinbj B, Seternes O, Seljelid R, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine meth A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 223:3, 643-9. Jun 1996.  Quote: When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta 1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A [sarcoma] tumor cells.”

Cancer: Williams D.L., et al.; Curr. Chemotherapy  and Infectious Disease, Proc.; 11th 1CC and 19th 1ICAAC pp. 1724-1726. 1980.

Candida albicans, Staphyloccoccus  and Infectious Challenge: Rice PJ, Adams EL, Ozment-Skelton T, Gonzales A, Goldman MP, Lockhart BE, Barker LA, Breuel KF, Deponti WK, Kalbfleisch JH, Ensley HE, Brown GD, Gordon S, Williams DL.; “Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.” East Tennessee State University. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Jun 23, 2005. Quote: ”Oral glucan administration also increased survival in mice challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans …[and] increase[s] IL-12 expression and induce[s] protection against infectious challenge.”

Candida albicans: Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Underhill DM. “Dectin-1 mediates macrophage recognition of Candida albicans yeast but not filaments”; The Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Embo J; 23:24(6):1277.86, Mar 2005; Quote: “Dectin-1 is a receptor that binds beta-glucans and is important for macrophage phagocytosis of fungi. … the normal mechanisms of yeast budding and cell separation create permanent scars which expose sufficient beta-glucan to trigger antimicrobial responses through Dectin-1, including phagocytosis and activation of reactive oxygen production [anti-oxidant - free radical neutralization].”

Candida Albicans: Browder IW., et al., “Modification of Post-Operative C. albicas Sepis by Glucan Immunostimulation,” Int. J. Immunopharmac.; 6:19-26. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA;  1984. Quote: “Protection against C. albicans was observed in the glucan-treated groups. ...These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post-operative infections.”

Candida Albicans: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Phagocytosis of heat-killed blastophores of Candida albicans by human monocytes beta-glucan receptors.”  Immunology. 65:181-185. 1988.

Candidiasis: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., Cook J.L., Hoffman E.O.; Protective effect of glucan in experimentally induced candidiasis; J Reticuloendothel Soc 53: 479-490, 1978.

Candidiasis: Williams D.L., et al; “Protective Effect of Glucan in Experimentally Induced Candidiasis”.  J. Reticuloendothel; Soc 23: 479-490. 1978.

Carcinoma - Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. "Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models." Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Carcinoma – Bladder:  Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Carcinoma - Mammary: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Chemotherapy – See also Radiation

Chemotherapy: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Chemotherapy: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system." Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: "Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides....These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens [chemotherapy components]. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth...reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury. 

Chemotherapy: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."

Chemotherapy: Tohamy AA et al. "Beta-glucan inhibits the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and cisplatin." Mutat. Research. 541(1-2):45-53. Nov 2003. Quote: "This protective effect of beta-glucan could be attributed to its scavenging ability to trap free-radicals produced during the biotransformation of these anti-neoplastic [abnormal tissue growth] drugs. Beta-glucan also markedly restored the mitotic [cell division] activity of bone marrow cells that had been suppressed by the anti-neoplastic drugs. These results indicate that in addition to known immunopotentiating activity of beta-glucan, it plays a role in reducing genotoxicity [capability to cause cancer] induced by anti-neoplastic [abnormal tissue growth] drugs during cancer chemotherapy."

Chemotherapy: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause ...; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Chemotherapy: Damia, et al, “Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Death in Mice by Recombinate Human Interleukin 1: Protection from Hematological and Nonhematological Toxicities”, Cancer Research, vol. 52, pp. 4082-4089.

Chemotherapy - Leukemia: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors”, Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Cholesterol: "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the  body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."

Cholesterol: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality."  U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: "consumption of ...yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels...highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice.."

Cholesterol: Naumann E, Van Rees AB, Onning G, Oste R, Wydra M, Mensink RP; “Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.” American J Clin Nutr:83(3):601-5. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands. March 2006. Quote: "beta-Glucan can reduce serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. …: Beta-glucan lowers serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol when incorporated into a fruit drink. A reduced cholesterol absorption contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan without affecting plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants."

Cholesterol Control: Robert Nicolosi, Stacey J Bell, Bruce R Bistrian, Isaac Greenberg, R Armour Forse and George L Blackburn, "Cholesterol Benefits from Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Purified from Yeast Cell Wall," Nutrition and Infection Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; the Centers for the Study of Nutrition and Medicine and for Nutritional Research, and Clowes Surgical Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 208-212, August 1999. Quote: "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men. ... The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations and was well tolerated…The link between elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the risk of developing coronary artery disease has been clearly established…Elevated plasma cholesterol and, in particular, LDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, whereas an elevated of HDL-cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular…The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber lowered total cholesterol and raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly. …

Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration.Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products."

Cholesterol Control: Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, Arnold AH, Ostroff G, Forse RA, "Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids [cholesterol included],"  Critical  Rev Food Science Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 39(2):189-202, March 1999: Quote: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S.  One way to reduce the risk of developing the disease is to lower serum cholesterol levels by making dietary changes. In addition to reducing intake of total fat, saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol can be further reduced by added fiber, especially from sources rich in beta-glucan. ...The yeast-derived fiber is a more concentrated source of beta-glucan than the oat product."   

Chromoblastomycosis - Fungal Skin Disease: Silva E, Azevedo CD, et al; "The use of glucan as immunostimulant in the treatment of a severe case of chromoblastomycosis" [chronic fungal skin disease]; Dept. of Patologia [Pathology], U Federal do Maranhao Maranhao, Brazil; Mycoses, April 26, 2008; Quote: "We report the case of an alternative treatment for a patient with a severe form of chromoblastomycosis that responded poorly to the traditional antifungal therapy. We hereby show, in this study, the improvement of lesions after treatment with itraconazole associated with an intra muscular administration of glucan. We observed that the regression of lesions was associated with an improvement of the cellular immune response."

Chronic Fatique Syndrome: Uchida, A.; “Method for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome,” U.S. Patent 5424300 (A method for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, comprising administering a polysaccharide  which further contains a .beta(1-3)glucan.-1,3/1,6-glucoside bond). Issued June 13, 1995.

Colorectal Surgery: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.”  World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006.  Quote: "… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.

Coronary Artery Disease:

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting:  Asrsaether E, Rydningen M, et al; "Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting." Dept of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ Hosp of N Norway, Norway. Sand Cardiovasc J. 40(5):298-304; PubMed 17012141. Oct 2006. Quote: "...The aims of the present study were to examine the safety of pretreatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to investigate whether beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment could suppress inflammatory response and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury following CABG.  ......Twenty one patients scheduled for CABG were assigned to oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucan 700 mg (Group 1) or 1 400 mg (Group 2) five consecutive days before surgery and were compared with a control group (Group 3). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and on the first, third and fifth postoperative day for analysis of acute-phase reactants, hematology, cytokines and myocardial enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment is safe in patients undergoing CABG [Coronary artery bypass grafting] and may protect against ischemia reperfusion injury following CABG.

Coronary Artery Disease - Cholesterol Control: Robert Nicolosi, Stacey J Bell, Bruce R Bistrian, Isaac Greenberg, R Armour Forse and George L Blackburn, "Cholesterol Benefits from Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Purified from Yeast Cell Wall," Nutrition and Infection Laboratory, Harvard Medical School; the Centers for the Study of Nutrition and Medicine and for Nutritional Research, and Clowes Surgical Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 208-212, August 1999. Quote: "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men. ... The yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations and was well tolerated…The link between elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the risk of developing coronary artery disease has been clearly established…Elevated plasma cholesterol and, in particular, LDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, whereas an elevated of HDL-cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with the incidence of cardiovascularThe yeast-derived ß-glucan fiber lowered total cholesterol and raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly. …

Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration.Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products."

Cytokine Release: Beta(1-3)glucan: “I1-1 Cytokine Release after Oral Application in Mice”. Baylor College of Medicine. Research Report. 1994.  

Return to Top


The Beta Glucan Research Organization is a non-commercial entity.  References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation, the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.

Note on various Glucan forms: Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker's yeast-derived beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a specially processed proprietary form of microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated purified Beta 1,3-D glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage that does not reaggregate after the digestive process.  “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan). “Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides.

Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms.  Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley, minimally effective in immune potentiation and not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.  Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations.

© Copyright 2001-20149 by The Beta Glucan Research Organization.  All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information or retrieval system without permission in writing from The Beta Glucan Research Organization.



 
Hit Counter
 

 

Home ]
Copyright © 2014 Beta Glucan Research Organization
Last modified: 12/27/13